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CSA C22.2 No. 0.17 Evaluation of Properties of Polymeric Materials

CSA C22.2 No. 0.17, also known as CAN/CSA-C22.2-0.17, is a vital standard that defines the procedures for assessing the properties of polymeric materials used in electrical equipment under the Canadian Electrical Code, Part ll (CEC Part ll). This standard plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety and performance of materials in various applications. CSA C22.2 No. 0.17 focuses on the evaluation of polymeric materials with regards to five essential properties:

This criterion assesses the material’s behavior in the presence of fire and its ability to resist or propagate flames. (a) Flammability Test:
The standard evaluates the structural integrity and mechanical strength of polymeric materials under various environmental conditions and stresses. (b) Mechanical Properties:
This aspect examines how well the material can withstand heat and temperature variations without compromising its performance. (c) Thermal Properties:
Evaluates the material’s durability and stability when exposed to external weather conditions over time. (d) Resistance to Weathering:
This criterion assesses the material’s electrical conductivity, insulation properties, and resistance to electrical hazards. (e) Electrical Properties:

The test procedures outlined in CSA C22.2 No. 0.17 serve as a reference in the Canadian Electrical Code. While the standard uses the term “shall” to indicate requirements, it’s essential to note that these procedures are nonmandatory unless specified by individual standards. The tests involve standard-size specimens tested under controlled lab conditions to provide an initial assessment of the material’s suitability for specific applications. It’s important to consider that the material’s performance may vary in real-world applications compared to lab conditions.

4.1.1 The test procedures listed in Clause 4.2 are recommended for assessing the flammability properties of polymeric materials. The appropriateness of applying each procedure to the polymeric materials under consideration is left to the judgment of the users of this Standard. ln some cases, the titles or descriptions of test specimens may serve as a key to the applicability of the procedure. 4.1 General  4. Flame Test Procedure 
For solid materials. the abilitv to resist combustion due to flame is as follows (in descending order): V-0, V-1, V-2, and HB at equivalent thicknesses. Similar ranking applies to VTM materials. 5VA and 5VB are enclosure material flame tests for integrity of end-product enclosures.
Note: Although the radiant panel test is more severe than 5V, it is not considered a flame test per se.
4.1.2 Except as otherwise specified in specific test procedures, within any basic formulation, if the material is to be considered in a range of colours, specimens representing these ranges shall be provided, Specimens in natural colour (if used) and in the most heavily pigmented light and dark colours shall be provided and considered representative of the colour range, if the test results are essentially the same.An additional set of specimens shall be required in the heaviest organic pigment loading, unless the most heavily pigmented light and dark colours include the highest organic pigment level. When certain colour pigments are known by experience and/or documentation to have adverse effects, specimens using these pigments shall also be provided.
4.1.3 Where an ASTM Standard specifies the use of a burner, a burner complying with ASTM Standard D 5025 or lEC Standard 60695-11-3 or 60695-11-4 should be used. The burner shall be calibrated as specified in ASTM Standard D 5207 or EC Standard 60695-11-3 or 60695-11-4. A burner other than one complying with ASTM Standard D 5025 is acceptable if it is calibrated as specified in ASTM Standard D 5207 or IEC Standard 60695-11-3 or 60695-11-4
4.1.4 Each Clause in this Standard that specifies a specific test method also includes, in its subclauses, editeo extracts from the Scope and significance and use sections of the relevant ASTM Standard used for that test.
4.1.5 Where surgical cotton is specified in this Standard, it shall be of the type that is 100% cotton.
4.1.6 Where methane is specified in this Standard, it shall have a heat content of 37 ± 1 M)/m 3. Natural gas having the same heat content shall also be acceptable.
4.1.7 The minimum size of the test chamber shall be 0.5 m 3 for all tests with flaming sources.
4.2.1.1.1 This test shall be performed as specified in ASTM Standard D 5048 or lEC Standard 60695-11-20 except as modified in Clauses 4.2.1.2 and 4.2.1.3. (See Fiqures 1 and 2 for position of specimen and burner.) 4.2.1.1 General 4.2.1 Flame Test 5V(500 W) 4.2 Flaming Sources
Figure 1 Schematic Diagram for Positioning of Bar Specimen and Burner for 5V Test
C22.2 No. 0.17 Figure 1 Schematic Diagram for Positioning of Bar Specimen and Burner for 5V Test
Figure 2 Schematic Diagram for Positioning of Plaque Specimen and Burner for 5V Test
C22.2 No. 0.17 Figure 2 Schematic Diagram for Positioning of Plaque Specimen and Burner for 5V Test
4.2.1.1.2 Material shall be classified as 5VA or 5VB in accordance with the criteria specified in Clause 4.2.1.4 and Table 1
4.2.1.1.3 Where specimens of polymeric material are coated with a flame-retardant coating, the combination of the coating and the polymeric material may be classified as 5VA or 5VB in accordance with the criteria specified in Clause 4.2.1.4 and Table 1, provided the adherence of the coating is assessed in accordance with Clause 4.2.6.
4.2.1.2.1 The test results represent flaming plus glowing time, in seconds, for a material under the conditions ot the test, The test results for plaques also indicate whether or not the specified flame will burn through a material. 4.2.1.2 Significance and Use
4.2.1.2.2 The effect of material thickness, colour additives, and possible loss of volatile components shall be considered.
4.2.1.2.3 The burning characteristics may vary with thickness. Test data should only be compared with data for materials of comparable thickness.
4.2.1.2.4 The results shall serve as a reference for comparing the relative performance of materials and may aid in materia selection.
4.2.1.3.1 Standard bar specimens shall be 125 ±5 mm in lenath and 13 : 0.5 mm in width and in the minimum thickness submitted. The maximum thickness of the specimen shall not exceed 13 mm. The specimen edges shall be smooth and the radius of its corners shall not exceed 1.3 mm. 4.2.1.3 Test Specimens
4.2.1.3.2 Standard plaque specimens shall be at least 150 mm in length and 150 mm in width and in the minimum thickness submitted. Only natural colour samples need be tested if a full range of colours of bar samples (see Clause 4.2.1.3.1) has been evaluated.
4.2.1.3.3 Two sets of plaques and bars shall be required for each colour tested, The first set of plaques and bars shall be conditioned at laboratory conditions for at least 48 h at 23 ±2 °C and 50 ±10% rh, The second set of specimens shall be conditioned in an air-circulating oven for 168 ±2 h at 70 + 2°C and then cooled in a desiccator, over anhydrous calcium chloride, for at least 4 h at room temperature, prior to testing. The specimens shall be tested within 30 min after removal from the desiccator.
4.2.1.3.4 After the fifth application of the test flame for each specimen, observe and record the following:
(a) after-flame time and afterglow time; and
(b) whether or not flaming particles ignited the cotton.
Material shall be classified as 5VA or 5VB based on the tests of ASTM Standard D 5048 or IEC Standard 60695-11-20, provided it complies with the criteria given in Table 1. 4.2.1.4 Classification
Table 1 Material Classification for Flame Test (5V)
4.2.2.1.1 This test shall be performed as specified in ASTM Standard D 3801 or EC Standard 60695-11-10, except as modified in Clauses 4.2.2.3 and 4.2.2.4. 4.2.2.1 General 4.2.2 Vertical Burning Tests for Classifying Materials as V-0, V-1, and V-2 (50 W) 
4.2.2.1.2 Material shall be classified as V-0, V-1, or V-2, in accordance with the criteria specified in Clause 4.2.2.4 and Table 2.
4.2.2.1.3 Thin material specimens that are totally consumed before completion of the test may be classified as VTM-0, VTM-1, or VTM-2, in accordance with the requirements of Clause 4.2.4.
4.2.2.2.1 Test specimens 125 5 mm in length and 13 : 0.5 mm in width and the minimum and maximum thicknesses shall be tested covering the thickness range to be considered. Specimens tested by this method shall be limited to a maximum thickness of 13 mm; their edges shall be smooth; and the radius on the corners shall not exceed 1.3 mm, Specimens of intermediate thicknesses shall also be provided and tested if changes in performance over the range are anticipated. lntermediate thicknesses shall not exceed increments of 3 mm. 4.2.2.2 Test Specimens
4.2.2.2.2 Two sets of bars shall be required for each colour tested. The first set of bars shall be conditioned at laboratory conditions for at least 48 h at 23 : 2 C and 50 10% rh, The second set of specimens shall be conditioned in an air-circulating oven for 168 2 h at 70 : 2 C and then cooled in a desiccator, over anhydrous calcium chloride, for at least 4 h at room temperature, prior to testing. The specimens shall be tested within 30 min after removal from the desiccator.
4.2.2.2.3 The following shall be observed and recorded:
(a) the duration of flaming after the first flame application;
(b) the duration of flaming plus glowing after the second flame application;
(c) whether or not specimens burn up to the holding clamp; and
(d) whether or not specimens drip flaming particles that ignite the surqgical cotton.
4.2.2.3.1 The test results represent flaming and glowing time, in seconds, for a material of specified shape, under the conditions of the test. 4.2.2.3 Significance and Use
4.2.2.3.2 The effect of material thickness, colour additives, and possible loss of volatile components is measurable.
4.2.2.3.3 The results shall serve as a reference for comparing the relative performance of materials and may aid in material selection.
Materials shall be classified as V-0, V-1, or V-2, on the basis of test results obtained on small bar specimens tested as shown in Table 2, in accordance with the schematic diagram shown in Fiqure 3 4.2.2.4.1 General 4.2.2.4 Classification
Figure 3 Schematic Diagram for the Vertical Burning Test
Figure 3 Schematic Diagram for the Vertical Burning Test
Table 2 Material Classification for Vertical Flame Test
An additional set of five specimens shall be tested if
(a) only one specimen from a set of five specimens fails to comply with the requirements in Clause 4.2.2.41 and Table 2; or
(b) the total time of flaming is in the range of 51 to 55 s for V-0 and 251 to 255 s for V-1 and V-2.
All specimens from this second set shall comply with the appropriate requirements in order for the material in that thickness to be classified as V-0, V-1 or V-2.
4.2.2.4.2 Additional Set of Specimens
4.2.3.1.1 This test shall be performed as specified in ASTM Standard D 635 or EC Standard 60695-11-10, except as modified in Clauses 4.2.3.2 and 4.2.3.4 (see Fiqure 4). 4.2.3.1 General 4.2.3 Horizontal Burning Test for Classifying Materials as HB 
Figure 4 Schematic Diagram for Horizontal Burning Test
Figure 4 Schematic Diagram for Horizontal Burning Test
4.2.3.1.2 Material shall be classified as HB in accordance with the criteria specified in Clause 4.2.3.4.
4.2.3.2.1 Three test specimens 125 +5 mm in length and 13 0.5 mm in width with the minimum thickness not exceeding 13 mm shall be tested. The edges of the specimens shall be smooth and the radius on the corners shall not exceed 1.3 mm. 4.2.3.2 Test Specimens
4.2.3.2.2 The specimens shall be conditioned for at least 48 h at 23 + 2 C and 50 10% rh prior to testing.
4.2.3.3.1 Tests made on a material under conditions prescribed herein may be of considerable value in comparing the rate of burning and/or extent and time of burning characteristics of different materials, in controlling manufacturing processes, or as a measure of deterioration or change in these burning characteristics prior to or during use. 4.2.3.3 Significance and Use
4.2.3.3.2 The rate of burning and other burning phenomena will vary with thickness. Test data should only be compared with data for material of comparable thickness. Useful information may be obtained from a plot of burning rate versus thickness.
4.2.3.3.3 Because sheet materials that have been stretched during processing may relax during burning and give erratic results, they shall be first heated above their deflection temperature, in accordance with the test method of ASTM Standard D 648, for a time sufficient to permit complete relaxation.
4.2.3.3.4 Burning tests shall require that certain variables be arbitrarily fixed, eg, specimen size, energy source, application time, and end points. Some materials may be found to be sensitive to one or more of the conditions chosen for this method, leading to highly variable results.
4.2.3.4.1 Materials classified as HB shall
(a) not have a burning rate exceeding 40 mm/min over a 75 mm span for specimens having a thickness of 3.0 to 13 mm;
(b) not have a burning rate exceeding 75 mm/min over a 75 mm span for specimens having a thickness less than 3.0 mm; or
(c) cease to burn before the flame reaches the 100 mm reference mark.
4.2.3.4 Classification
4.2.3.4.2 If only one specimen, from a set of three specimens, fails to comply with the requirements, another set of three specimens shall be tested. All specimens from this second set shall comply with the requirements in order for material in that thickness to be classified as HB.
Note: IEC is introducing two HB ratings (HB-40 and HB-75), which are similar to the present HB rating.
4.2.4.1.1 This test shall be performed as specified in ASTM Standard D 4804 or lEC Standard 60695-11-10 or ISO Standard 9773, except as modified in Clauses 4.2.43 and 4.2.4.4. 4.2.4.1 General 4.2.4 Vertical Burning Tests for Classifying Thin Materials as VTM-0, VTM-1, and VTM-2 
4.2.4.1.2 Only materials that do not comply with the test of Clause 4.2.2 shall be classified by this method.
4.2.4.1.3 Only material that can be wrapped around the mandrel described in Clause 4.2.4.3 shall be classified by this method.
4.2.4.1.4 Material shall be classified as VTM-0, VTM-1, or VTM-2, in accordance with the criteria specified in Clause 4.2.4.4 and Table 3.
4.2.4.2.1 The rate of burning and other burning phenomena vary with thickness. Test data should only be compared with data for material of comparable thickness. Useful information may be obtained from a plot of burning rate versus thickness. 4.2.4.2 Significance and Use
4.2.4.2.2 The effect of material thickness, colour additives, and possible loss of volatile components shall be considered.
4.2.4.2.3 The results shall serve as a reference for comparing the relative performance of materials and may aid in material selection.
Test specimens shall be cut from the sheet material to a size 200 mm in length and 50 mm in width. Test specimens shall be prepared by marking a line across the specimen width, 125 mm from one end (bottom) of the cut specimen. The longitudinal axis of the test specimen shall then be wrapped tightl around the longitudinal axis of a 12.7 : 0.5 mm diameter mandrel to form a lapped cylinder 200 mm ong with the 125 mm line exposed. The overlapping ends of the specimen shall be secured within the 75 mm portion above the 125 mm mark and at the upper tube section by means of pressure-sensitive tape, after which the mandrel shall be removed (see Figure 5). 4.2.4.3 Test Specimens
Materials shall be classified as VTM-0, VTM-1, or VTM-2, on the basis of test results obtained on wrapped cylinder specimens (see Table 3 and Figure 5). 4.2.4.4.1 General 4.2.4.4 Classification
Table 3 Thin Material Vertical Flame Classification (VTM)
Figure 5 Schematic Diagram for VTM Vertical Burning Test
Figure 5 Schematic Diagram for VTM Vertical Burning Test
An additional set of five specimens shall be tested if
(a) only one specimen from a set of five specimens fails to comply with the requirements in Clauses 4.2.4.4.1 and Table 3; or
(b) the total time of flaming is in the range of 51 to 55 s for VTM-0 and 251 to 255 s for VTM-1 and VTM-2.
4.2.4.4.2 Additional Set of Specimens
All specimens from this second set shall comply with the appropriate requirements in order for the material in that thickness to be classified as VTM-0, VTM-1, or VTM-2.
This test shall be performed as specified in ASTM Standard D 4986 or ISO Standard 9772, except as modified in Clauses 4.2.5.3 and 4.2.5.4 (see Figure 6). 4.2.5.1 General 4.2.5 Flame Test for Foamed Materials 
Figure 6 Schematic Diagram for Horizontal Burning Test for Foamed Material  
Figure 6 Schematic Diagram for Horizontal Burning Test for Foamed Material  
Test specimens shall be cut from a representative sample of the material. Care shall be taken to remove all dust and any particles from the surface, The test specimens shall be marked as shown in Figure 6 with reference marks at 25, 60, and 125 mm. 4.2.5.2.1 Preparation 4.2.5.2 Test Specimens
Standard test specimens shall be 150 : 1 mm long and 50 ±1 mm wide, in the minimum and maximum thicknesses covering the thickness range to be considered. Specimens tested by this method shall be limited to a maximum thickness of 13 mm. Specimens of intermediate thicknesses shall also be provided and may be tested if the results obtained on the minimum or maximum thickness, or both, indicate a need,lntermediate thicknesses shall not exceed increments of 6 mm, The specimen edges shall be smooth and the radius of its corners shall not exceed 2 mm. 4.2.5.2.2 Specimen Size
The second set of specimens shall be conditioned in an air-circulating oven for 168 ±2 h at 70 2 C and then cooled in a desiccator, over anhydrous calcium chloride, for at least 4 h at room temperature, prior to testing. The specimens shall be tested within 30 min after removal from the desiccator. 4.2.5.2.3 Two sets of specimens shall be required for each colour tested. The first set of specimens shall be conditioned at laboratory conditions for at least 48 h at 23 2 C and 50 +10% rh.
4.2.5.2.4.1 If the material is to be considered in a range of densities or colours, specimens representing the extremes of the range shall be provided and considered representative of the range if the test results are essentially the same. When certain colour pigments (eg, yellow) are known by experience to have particularly adverse effects, they shall also be provided 4.2.5.2.4 Material Ranges
4.2.5.2.4.2 If consideration is to be given to foamed material having a high-density exterior on one or both sides, representative specimens shall be provided. lf a range of exterior densities are to be considered, specimens representing the range shall be provided.
4.2.5.2.4.3 If consideration is to be given to foamed material having adhesive on a surface, specimens having adhesive on one side shall be provided. The test shall be conducted on the specimens with the adhesive facing up.
4.2.5.3.1 This test shall be performed on foamed plastic materials used for parts and components in appliances in non-structural applications. 4.2.5.3 Significance and Use
4.2.5.3.2 This test method provides a means of measuring the time and extent of burning for foamed polymeric materials. lt also provides a means of measuring burning rates for materials that continue to burn past the specified gauge marks.
4.2.5.3.3 This test method provides a means of comparing the burning characteristics, including the effect of falling particles of foamed polymeric materials. t may be used for quality control, specification acceptance, and research and development. The materials tested may be filled or reinforced, rigid or flexible, cut or formed.
Foamed material shall be classified as HF-1 and HF-2, according to Table 4. 4.2.5.4.1 Materials Classified as HF 4.2.5.4 Classification
Table 4 Foamed Material Classification (HF)
Such materials shall
(a) not burn at a rate in excess of 40 mm/min over a 100 mm span; or
(b) cease to burn before the flame reaches the 125 mm reference mark.
4.2.5.4.2 Materials Classified as HBF
To assess whether flame-retardant coatings on a given plastic material will adhere and whether the assigned flammability classification of the combination is unaffected by environmental cycling, test specimens shall be subjected to the tests specified in Clauses 4.2.6.2 to 4.2.6.5. 4.2.6.1 General 4.2.6 Flame-Retardant Coatings 
All test specimens, as required by Clause 4.2.6.3 and the flame test of Clause 4.2.1 or 4.2.2 as applicable shall 4.2.6.2 Conditioning
(a) be conditioned for 800 h at 90 C or 1500 h at 80C in an oven complying with ASTM Standard D 5423:
(b) within 5 min of the end of the conditioning specified in ltem (a), be placed in a freezer at a temperature of -40C for 16 h;
(c) on completion of ltem (b), be conditioned for 168 h at 35 3 C and 90 5% rh;
(d) on completion of ltem (C), be conditioned at a temperature of 23 ±2 °C and 50 ±10% rh for a period of not less than 4 h; and
(e) after the conditioning specified in ltem (d), be subjected to the flexing test of Clause 4.2.6.3 and the applicable flame test.
Where required by Clause 4.2.6.2, five test specimens, each 125 mm by 12.5 mm in the minimum thickness, shall be horizontally mounted and rigidly clamped 12.5 mm from one end. A load shall be applied at a rate of 12.5 to 50 mm per min, 115 mm from the clamped end. The load shall be applied to cause a 25 mm vertical deflection upward,50 mm vertical deflection downward, with a 25 mm upward return to the starting point to complete the cycle. Each test specimen shall be flexed for five complete cycles. 4.2.6.3 Flexing
4.2.6.4.1 The surface resistivity of the flame-retardant coating on the enclosure shall be at least 1 M when tested as specified in ASTM Standard D 257. The measurement shall be made immediately after the humidity conditioning specified in ltem (a) of Clause 4.2.6.4.2 and immediately after that specified in ltem (b) of Clause 4.2.6.4.2. lf the measured resistivity is not essentially the same for each conditioning, the conditioning described in ltem (b) of Clause 4.2.6.4.2 shall be continued for a longer period of time to demonstrate that the asymptotic resistivity is at least 1 MΩ . 4.2.6.4 Surface Resistivity
4.2.6.4.2 Three specimens, each 100 by 100 mm, shall be conditioned as follows:
(a) 40 h at 23 2C and 50 10%rh; and
(b) 168 h at 353C and 905%rh.
Both before and after completion of the conditionina described in Clause 4.2.6.2. the specimens shal be tested to determine that 4.2.6.5 Preconditioning and Post-conditioning Tests
(a) the flammability classification is essentially the same or better than that of the unconditioned samples;
(b) they do not exhibit any evidence of flaking, cracking, or blistering of the coating after the test described in Clause 4.2.6.3;and
(c) they are in compliance with the surface resistivity requirements of Clause 4.2.6.4.
This test shall be performed as specified in ASTM Standard D 3874, except as modified in Clauses 4.3.1.3 to 4.3.1.5 (see Figure 7). 4.3.1.1 General 4.3.1 Hot-Wire Ignition Test (HWI) 4.3 Non-flaming Sources
Figure 7 Schematic Diagram for Hot-Wire Ignition Test
Figure 7 Schematic Diagram for Hot-Wire Ignition Test
4.3.1.2.1 Under certain conditions of operation or malfunction, electrical equipment, wires, other conductors resistors, or other parts may become abnormally hot. When these overheated parts are in intimate contact with insulating materials, ignition of the insulation may occur. This test determines the relative resistance of insulating materials to ignition under such conditions. 4.3.1.2 Significance and Use
4.3.1.2.2 For a given material, the test method shall determine the average time, in seconds, required for ignition of specimens under the conditions. Subject to limitations in precision and bias, this index may be used to categorize materials.
The test specimens shall be 125 +5 mm in length and 13 ±0.5 mm in width in the minimum thickness. Edges shall be free of burrs, fins, etc. 4.3.1.3 Test Specimens
The colours tested shall be natural or any commercially supplied colour provided that a full range of colours has been tested as stated in Clause 4.2.2 or 4.2.3; otherwise, the requirements for colour shall be as specified in Clause 4.1.2.
The specimens shall be conditioned for at least 48 h at 23 ±2 °C and 50 10% rh prior to testing. 4.3.1.4 Conditioning
The time to ignition for the specified thickness shall be averaged from the five specimens. 4.3.1.5 Results
The resistance of the material to hiah-current arc ianition (HA) shall be determined in accordance with Clauses 4.3.2.2 to 4.3.2.5. The average number of cycles to ignition shall be calculated (see Fiqure 8 for a typical circuit). 4.3.2.1 General 4.3.2 High-Current Arc lgnition (HAl) 
Figure 8 Typical Circuit for High-Voltage Arc Resistance
Figure 8 Typical Circuit for High-Voltage Arc Resistance
The basic components of the test apparatus shall consist of the following: 4.3.2.2 Apparatus
(a) Fixed electrode — A copper rod that is nominally 3 mm in diameter and has an overall length of approximately 150 mm shall be used. One end shall be machined to a symmetric chisel point having a total angle of 30 +1 ° The radius of curvature for the chisel edge shall not exceed 0.1 mm at the start of a given test.
(b) Movable electrode — A Type 303 stainless steel rod that is nominally 3 mm in diameter and has an overall length of approximately 150 mm shall be used, The end shall be machined to a symmetric conical point having a total angle of 60 ±1 , The radius of curvature for the point shall not exceed 0.1 mm at the start of a given test.
(c) Power source — Power shall be supplied to the test electrodes from a 60 Hz high-capacity source. A series (inductive-resistive) air-core impedance shall be provided to yield a short-circuit current of 32.5 ±0.5 A and a power factor of 0.5 ±0.05.
(d) Test fixture — The test sample shall be clamped horizontally on a non-conductive, fire-resistant, inert surface. Both electrodes shall be positioned at an angle of 45 ±1° to the horizontal, in a common vertical plane, orthogonal to the axis of the sample. The chisel edge of the fixed electrode shall be horizontal and shall contact the sample throughout the test. lnitially, the conical point of the movable electrode shall contact the chisel edge of the fixed electrode. A mechanical means shall be provided to displace the movable electrode collinear into the axis of the electrode. The apparatus shall enable the electrodes to alternately make and break contact at the sample surface. A spring-oaded pneumatic device may be used to achieve this action. Further means shall be provided for adjustment of both the timing of the electrode contact and the rate of electrode separation.
(e) Controlling relay — A relay shall be provided to trigger the electrode separation when the electrode current has reached 32.5 A.
(f)Counter– An automatic counter shall be provided to record the number of cycles throughout a given test.
Five test specimens shall be required, each being in the form of a bar measuring 125 ±5 mm in length and 13 ±0.5 mm in width and in the thickness to be tested. 4.3.2.3 Test Specimens
The specimens shall be conditioned for at least 48 h at 23 + 2 C and 50 ±10% rh prior to testing 4.3.2.4 Conditioning
4.3.2.5.1 With the sample positioned and the electrodes making initial contact, the circuit shall be enerqized and the cyclic arcing started. The timing of the arcs shall be adjusted to a rate of 40 complete arcs per minute. The rate of electrode separation shall be 254 + 25 mm/s. The test shall be continued until ignition of the sample occurs, or until a total of 200 cycles has elapsed. 4.3.2.5 Procedure
4.3.2.5.2 The test shall be conducted on a minimum of five samples. The number of arcs to cause ignition shall be recorded in each case. The average for all the tests shall be calculated and shall be the numerica index.
The high-voltage arc resistance to ignition shall be determined in accordance with Clauses 4.3.3.2 to 4.3.3.4. The average time to ignition shall be calculated. 4.3.3.1 General 4.3.3 High-Voltage Arc Resistance(HVAR)
The basic components of the test apparatus shall be as follows: 4.3.3.2 Apparatus
(a) a power transformer rated at 250 VA, 60 Hz; secondary open-circuit volts, V = 5200 V (ac rms);
(b) a current-limiting resistor bank capable of limiting the short-circuit current, l s. at the electrodes to 2.36 mA maximum;
(c)test electrodes, both consisting of a tungsten or Type 303 stainless steel rod having a nominal diameter of 3 mm and an overall length of approximately 100 mm. The end shall be machined to a symmetric conical point having an overall angle of 30 1 . The radius of curvature for the point shall not exceed 0.1 mm at the start of a given test,The electrodes shall be mounted in a common vertica plane, parallel to the axis of the test sample, orthogonal to each other, and each having an angle of 45 +1° to the horizontal, One of the electrodes shall be fixed and the other so located that there is a spacing of 4.0 mm across the specimen between the electrodes; and
(d) a timer in the test fixture to enable the operator to determine the length of time of the test. See Fiqure 8 for a schematic diagram of the circuit.
Figure 8 Typical Circuit for High-Voltage Arc Resistance
Figure 8 Typical Circuit for High-Voltage Arc Resistance
Five test specimens shall be required in the form of bars, each measuring 125 +5 mm in length and 13 +0.5 mm in width, in the thickness to be tested. 4.3.3.3 Test Specimens
Each test sample shall be clamped in position under the electrodes. The electrodes shall be placed on the surface of the test sample and spaced 4.0 +0.1 mm from tip to tip. The circuit shall then be energized and maintained for 5 min or until ignition occurs. 4.3.3.4 Test Procedure
Materials tested in accordance with ASTM Standard E 162 shall have a flame spread index listing as determined by the average value based on tests of four specimens. 4.3.4.1 General 4.3.4 Radiant Panel 
4.3.4.2.1 This test method provides a laboratory test procedure for measuring and comparing the surface flammability of materials when exposed to a prescribed level of radiant heat energy. lt is intended for measurements on materials whose surfaces may be exposed to fire. The test is intended for research and development only. 4.3.4.2 Significance and Use
4.3.4.2.2 The rate at which flames travel along surfaces depends upon the physical and thermal properties of the material, its method of mounting and orientation, the type and level of fire or heat exposure, the availability of air, and properties of the surrounding enclosure.
The test shall be made on four specimens 150 ±3 mm by 460 ±3 mm that are representative, to the extent possible, of the material or assembly being evaluated. 4.3.4.3 Test Specimens
The test is applicable to electrotechnical products, subassemblies, a component’s solid electrica insulating materials, or solid combustible materials. The glow-wire shall simulate the effect of thermal stresses, which may be produced in electrotechnical products for short periods by heat sources such as glowing elements or overloaded resistors, in order to assess fire hazard. 4.3.5.1 Significance and Use 4.3.5 Glow-Wire lgnition Test(GWIT)
Note: Tests are based on the test methods specified in lEC Standards 60695-2-1/0, 60695-2-1/2, and 60695-2-1/3
Five test specimens or five applications of the glow-wire to a large specimen shall be required. The minimum size shall be 20 mm by 20 mm (50 mm by 50 mm specimens are preferred). Small parts that ie within a 15 mm circle shall be considered too small to conduct the alow-wire test, A needle-flame test may be conducted (see Appendix B). 4.3.5.2 Test Specimens
The specimens, tissue paper, and wooden board shall be conditioned for at least 48 h at 23 2 °C and 50 ±10% rh prior to testing. 4.3.5.3 Conditioning
The glow-wire shall be made from nickel/chromium (80/20) wire, with an overall nominal diameter of 4 mm. The wire shall be formed into a loop as detailed in Fiqure 9. 4.3.5.4.1 Test Apparatus 4.3.5.4 Apparatus
Figure 9 Glow-Wire Loop and Tip
Figure 9 Glow-Wire Loop and Tip
The glow-wire shall be heated by an electrical circuit as shown in Figure 10. There shall be no feedback circuit to maintain the temperature.
The glow-wire apparatus shall be designed so that the qlow-wire approaches the sample in a horizonta plane, and the maximum force applied to the specimen shall be 1.0 0.2 N. The maximum force shall be maintained by moving either the specimen or apparatus. The apparatus shall be equipped with a stop so that the depth of the penetration shall not exceed 7 mm (see Figure 11).
Figure 11 Test Apparatus
Figure 11 Test Apparatus
The temperature-measuring system shall consist of a Class 1 (EC Standard 60584-2) reference mineral-insulated meta-sheathed fine-wire thermocouple with an insulated junction. The type K thermocouple shall have a nominal diameter of 1.0 mm (including metal sheath). The sheath shall be of a material (such as lnconel 600) capable of continuous operation at a temperature of 1050 °C. The emperature-measuring system shall measure the temperature to an accuracy of 1%. 4.3.5.4.2 Temperature-Measuring System
The thermocouple shall be arranged in a pocket hole, drilled behind the tip of the glow-wire as shown in Fiqure 9. The thermocouple contact with the bottom of the hole shall be maintained by penning the thermocouple in position. 4.3.5.4.3 Thermocouple
The test chamber shall have a volume of at least 0.5 m 3, and the interior ambient light in the chamber shall be less than 20 lux. 4.3.5.4.4 Test Chamber
Unless specified by the end-product Standard, wrapping tissue shall be as specified by Clause 6.86 of ISO Standard 4046, weighing between 12 and 30 g/m 2, A single layer of the wrapping tissue shall be wrapped around a wooden board of at least 10 mm in thickness placed 200 ±5 mm below the glow-wire. 4.3.5.5 Specified Layer
The glow-wire shall be preheated to the specified test temperature for 1 min before conducting the test. The glow-wire shall be brought in contact with the thinnest section of the test specimen but not closer than 15 mm to the upper edge. The glow-wire shall maintain contact with the specimen for 30 ±1 s. 4.3.5.6 Procedure
The following observations and measurements shall be made: 4.3.5.7 Observations and Measurements
(a) duration of application (t,);
(b) duration from the beginning of the application to ignition of the specimen or tissue paper (t );
(c)duration from the beginning of the application to when the flame extinguishes during or after removal of the glow-wire (t);
(d) the maximum height of the flame from the specimen that exists for longer than 1 s, recorded to the next highest S mm;
(e) burning material removed from the specimen with the glow-wire shall not constitute a failure;
(f) ignition of the tissue shall be noted; and
(g)ignition shall be considered to have occurred if the specimen burns for more than 5 s or the tissue is ignited.
4.3.5.8.1 A qlow-wire ignition test for the end product shall be conducted according to Clause 4.3.5. The burning time shall not exceed 60 s as determined by t, + 30 s. The sample shall not burn for more than 30 s after the removal of glow-wire. The indication material shall not be ignited by dripping particles. 4.3.5.8 GWIT Classification
4.3.5.8.2 If a material is being rated for the glow-wire test, the results shall be reported as the temperature 25 °C above where ignition did not occur. The results shall be reported as GWIT:850/3.0 (ie, 850 C at 3.0 mm) for a material that did not ignite at 825 ·C at 3.0 mm.

CSA C22.2 No. 0.17 Evaluation of Properties of Polymeric Materials is a critical standard for ensuring the safety, reliability, and performance of polymeric materials in electrical equipment applications. By following the prescribed test procedures and safety guidelines, manufacturers and engineers can assess the key properties of materials and make informed decisions regarding their use in various environments. It is essential to understand the limitations of the standard and conduct comprehensive assessments to mitigate potential risks associated with material properties.

While the standard helps evaluate material properties related to heat and flame, it does not directly assess fire hazards. Factors such as ignition ease, burning rate, flame spread, and combustion byproducts influence the fire risk of materials in real-world situations. Results from the tests can be part of a broader fire risk assessment that considers all relevant factors for specific applications. It is the user’s responsibility to establish safety practices and regulatory compliance before conducting any tests.

The C22.2 No. 0.17 standard is designed to measure material properties under controlled conditions and should not be used to assess fire hazards in practical scenarios. By adhering to CSA standards like C22.2 No. 0.17, industry professionals can uphold quality, safety, and regulatory compliance in the design and manufacturing of electrical equipment. Stay informed, stay compliant, and prioritize the evaluation of polymeric materials to enhance product reliability and user safety.

The following tests are intended for the characterization of materials and do not necessarily reflect end-product performance. The following tests are typically used in the evaluation of a material’s relative thermal index or its ability to resist weathering. Tests of mechanical properties are normally conducted on natural colour but any colour can be tested. 5.1 General  5.Mechanical Properties 
The Charpy impact strength shall be determined on 10 specimens according to ISO Standard FDIS 179-1 or 179-2. 5.2.1 General  5.2 Charpy lmpact
The test shall determine the notch impact of a material at room temperature. Moulded specimens shall be notched after conditioning at room temperature prior to the impact test. 5.2.2 Purpose
The impact test shall relate specifically to the behaviour of a notch material when subjected to a high rate of loading from a single multi-axial stress. The notch behaviour of the material may be compared to other materials. 5.2.3 Significance and Use
The lzod impact strength shall be determined on five specimens nominally 3 mm thick, in accordance with lSO Standard 180 (4 mm thicknesses and 10 specimens shall be used) or Procedure A of ASTM Standard D 256. The data shall be normalized to a thickness of 3 mm. The mean failure energy, E, and the estimated standard deviation, s, shall be calculated, The ratio s/E shall not exceed 0.25 or the test shall be repeated. For foamed materials, the specimens shall not be notched. 5.3.1 General 5.3 Izod Impact
The excess energy pendulum impact test indicates the energy required to break standard test specimens of specified size under stipulated conditions of specimen mounting, notching (stress concentration), and pendulum velocity at impact, The value of these impact test methods lies mainly in the areas of quality control and materials specification. 5.3.2 Significance and Use
5.4.1.1 The flexural properties shall be determined in accordance with ASTM Standard D 790 or lSO Standard 178 on five test specimens of a thickness not less than 3 mm. 5.4.1 General  5.4 Flexural Strength and Modulus 
5.4.1.2 The report shall indicate the test method and thickness used and shall include the calculated average value.
Flexural properties, determined by ASTM Standard D 790, are especially useful for quality control and specification purposes. This test, in lieu of the tensile test specified in Clause 5.5, is useful for thermoset materials. 5.4.2 Significance and Use
These test methods are used for the determination of flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforceo plastics. The test methods are generally applicable to rigid and semi-riqid materials.
The tensile strength at yield or break, whichever is the greater, shall be determined on five specimens nominally 3 mm thick, in accordance with ASTM Standard D 638, using a Type specimen, or in accordance with ISO Standard 527 Parts 1 and 2. The average value shall be calculated, and the thickness of the specimen shall be specified and recorded, For rubber material, ASTM Standard D 412 Die C, or ISO Standard 1798 shall be used. 5.5.1 General 5.5 Tensile Strength
This test method is designed to produce tensile property data for the control and specification of plastic materials. These data are also useful for gualitative characterization purposes and for research and development. 5.5.2 Significance and Use
This test method is used for the determination of the tensile properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics in the form of dumb-bell-shaped specimens when tested under defined conditions.
Viscoelastic materials (polymers) may be sensitive to changes in velocity of weights falling on their surfaces. This method uses a constant weight dropped from varying heights to differentiate materia resistance to impact. 5.6.1 General 5.6 Drop-Weight lmpact 
Drop weight is a multi-axial impact that gives a different mode of failure than other types of impact tests. 5.6.2 Significance and Use
This test is used for products where bar samples are not easily obtained.
This test method determines the energy required to crack or break rigid flat samples under various specified conditions.
The drop-weight impact strength shall be determined in accordance with ASTM Standard D 5420 and 5.6.3 Procedure
Geometry GB for the tup and support ring dimensions, using 30 specimens with nominal thickness of 3 mm and length and width not less than 100 mm each, or 30 discs with a minimum diameter of 100 mm. The mean failure energy, E, and the estimated standard deviation, s, shall be calculated. The ratio s/E shall not exceed 0.25 or the test shall be repeated.
This test is particularly suitable for testing materials with low modulus and high elasticity or for testing thin materials. The tensile-impact strength shall be determined on five Type S specimens, preferably with 13 mm tabs, in accordance with ASTM Standard D 1822 or lSO Standard 8256. The average value of five specimens shall be calculated. 5.7.1 General  5.7 Tensile lmpact
Tensile-impact energy is the energy required to break a standard tension-impact specimen in tension by a single swing of a standard calibrated pendulum under a set of standard conditions. 5.7.2 Significance and Use
The thermal characteristics of a compound shall be determined by either or both of the methods specified in Clauses 5.8.2 and 5.8.3 5.8.1 General 5.8 Thermal Properties
5.8.2.1.1 The deflection temperature under flexural load shall be determined in accordance with ASTM Standard D 648 or ISO Standards 75-1 and 75-2 under a stress of 455 and 1820 kPa, using unannealed specimens. 5.8.2.1 General 5.8.2 Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT/DTUL)
5.8.2.1.2 wo specimens, each 125 mm by 13 mm (for lSO, 10 mm by 4 mm) by 3 +0.5 mm, shall be tested The reported result shall be the average of the two test results.
This test method is used for the determination of the temperature at which a specified deformation occurs when specimens are subjected to a set of testing conditions. 5.8.2.2 Significance and Use
Data obtained by this test method may not be used to predict the behaviour of plastic materials at elevated temperatures, except in applications in which the factors of time, temperature, method of loading, and fibre stress are similar to those specified in this test, The data are not intended for use in design or predicting endurance at elevated temperatures.
5.8.3.1.1 The Vicat softening point shall be determined in accordance with ASTM Standard D 1525 or ISO Standard 306, using a 1 kg load and the Rate A (2 C/min or 120°C/h) increase of temperature specified in ASTM Standard D 1525. 5.8.3.1 General 5.8.3 Vicat Softening Point
5.8.3.1.2 Two specimens shall be tested. The reported result shall be the average of the two test results. Each specimen shall have a minimum width of 12 mm (for lSO, 10 mm) and minimum thickness of 3 mm (for ISO, 4 mm).
This test method determines the temperature at which a specified needle penetration occurs when specimens are subjected to specified test conditions. Data obtained by this test method may be used to compare the heat softening qualities of thermoplastic materials. 5.8.3.2 Significance and Use
The following tests are applicable for materials intended for service outdoors. The test specified in Clause 5.9.2.1 simulates the effects of exposure to sunlight and rain on plastic materials. All materials are not affected equally by this test; results obtained shall not be represented as equivalent to those of any natural weathering. Colour range representative of samples tested shall be as specified in Clause 4.1.2 5.9.1 General  5.9 Weathering 
(a) Type B or BH apparatus (without humidity control); 5.9.2.1 The test specimens shall be subjected to alternate cycles of 102 min of light followed by 18 min of light and water spray, for a period of 1000 h in accordance with the procedure of ASTM Standard G 155 using 5.9.2 Weatherometer Test
(b) Method A:
(c) an irradiance level of 0.35 W/m2/nm band at 340 nm;
(d) a black panel temperature of 63 3C; and
(e) a borosilicate glass inner and outer optical filter to simulate the spectral power distribution (SPD) of natural daylight throughout the actinic reqion.
5.9.2.2 The average physical property values of the test specimens shall not be less than 70% of their unconditioned values for the tests given in Table 5.
Table 5 Tests of Physical Property Values of Specimens
5.9.2.3 All materials having a vertical flammability classification shall be retested after the conditioning specified in Clause 5.9.2.1 to determine that the assigned flame classification has not changed.
The moisture absorption test determines the relative rate of absorption of water by a plastic when immersed in water for a defined time period. 5.10.1 General 5.10 Water Absorption 
Water absorbed by polymeric material may affect the dielectric voltage withstand capability of the material. 5.10.2 Significance and Use
The method used to calculate water absorption shall be conducted as described in ASTM Standard D 570 or ISO Standard 62 on three samples having a thickness of 3 mm and of any size or shape but having an area not less than 1500 mm2, The 24 h immersion test in ASTM Standard D 570 shall be conducted.
Note: The water absorption test for cellular plastics should refer to ISO Standard 2896. 
Acceptance criteria shall be as specified in the end-product Standard. 5.10.3 Observation and Measurement
The test data on unpigmented specimens shall be considered representative of coloured materials unless the organic pigment level exceeds 0.3% or the inorganic pigment level exceeds 5%, in which case the highest loading of the spectrum of colour shall be tested. 6.1 General 6.Electrical Properties 
The dielectric strenath shall be determined in air on five conditioned specimens nominally 1.5 mm thick using brass electrodes nominally 25 mm in diameter and 25 mm long, in accordance with lEC Standard 60243-1 or Method A of ASTM Standard D 149. The test voltage shall be applied at a rate of 500 V/s until a breakdown (ie, rupture or decomposition) occurs. The average breakdown voltage stress shall be calculated. 6.2.1 General 6.2 Dielectric Strength
The dielectric strength of an electrical insulating material is a property of interest for any application where an electrical field is present. In many cases, the dielectric strength of a material will be the determining factor in the design of the apparatus in which it is used. 6.2.2 Significance and Use
Note: The dielectric strength increases with a decrease in thickness.
Five specimens, each 100 by 100 mm, shall be conditioned in accordance with either or both of the following requirements: 6.2.3 Specimen Conditioning
(a) 48 h at 23 +2C and 50 ±10% rh for the dry dielectric test; and/or
(b) 96 h at 35 + 3C and 90 + 5% rh for the wet dielectric test.
The value for the volume resistivity and surface resistivity of a material shall be determined as the average of the test results on three specimens when tested in accordance with the methods specified in ASTM Standard D 257 or IEC Standard 60093. 6.3.1 General 6.3 Volume Resistivity and Surface Resistivity
Insulating materials are used to isolate components of an electrical system from each other and from ground, as well as to provide mechanical support for the components. For this purpose, it is generally desirable to have the insulation resistance as high as possible, consistent with acceptable mechanical chemical, and heat-resisting properties. Since insulation resistance or conductance combines both volume and surface resistance or conductance, its measured value is most useful when the test specimen and electrodes have the same form as that required in actual use. Surface resistance or conductance changes rapidly with humidity; while volume resistance or conductance changes slowly, it may eventually be greater than surface resistance or conductance. 6.3.2 Significance and Use
The value for the high-voltage, low-current, dry arc resistance of a material shall be determined as the average of the test results on three specimens when tested in accordance with the methods specified in ASTM Standard D 495. 6.4.1 General 6.4 High-Voltage, Low-Current, Dry Arc Resistance
This test determines the insulating surface properties of a polymeric material subjected to high-voltage low-current arcing under dry conditions. 6.4.2 Purpose
This test method shall be used to compare materials for surface tracking caused by a high voltage and ow current on the surface, The method detects changes caused by changes in formulations anc processing parameters. 6.4.3 Significance and Use
The comparative tracking index (CTl) shall be determined on at least five specimens in accordance with ASTM Standard D 3638. The applied voltage shall be plotted against the number of droplets of solution required for tracking to occur, On the curve, the voltage that corresponds to 50 droplets shall be the 6.5.1 General 6.5 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI)
Note: IEC Standard 60112 should be used for the testing of end products.
6.5.2.1 Electrical equipment may fail as a result of electrical tracking of insulating material that is exposed to various contaminating environments and surface conditions. This method is an accelerated test which at relatively low test voltages, provides a comparison of the performance of insulating materials under wet and contaminated conditions. The comparative tracking index is not directly related to the suitable operating voltage in service. 6.5.2 Significance and Use
6.5.2.2 When organic insulating materials are subjected to conduction currents between electrodes on their surfaces, many minute tree-like carbonaceous paths or tracks are developed near the electrodes. These tracks are oriented randomly, but generally propagate between the electrodes under the influence of the applied potential difference. Eventually a series of tracks spans the electrode gap and failure occurs due to the shorting of the electrodes.
6.5.2.3 The conditions specified herein are intended, as in other tracking test methods, to produce a condition conducive to the formation of surface discharges and possible subsequent tracking Test conditions are chosen to reproducibly and conveniently accelerate a process: for this reason, they rarelv reproduce the varied conditions found in actual service. Therefore, while tracking tests serve to differentiate materials under given conditions, results of tracking tests shall not be used to infer direct or comparative service behaviour of an application design.
The RTl of a plastic material shall be determined using lEC Standards 60216-1, 60216-2, 60216-3-1, 60216-3-2, and 60216-4-1, and lEC Technical Report 60216-5 except as noted below: 7.1 Determination of RTI 7.Relative Thermal Index (RTI)
(a) Wherever possible, a reference material shall be tested along with the candidate material for comparison. The reference material shall be similar in composition to the candidate and shall have an established RTl based on either long term service experience (see Table 6), or on previous tests conducted in accordance with IEC Standard 60216.
(b) Thermal endurance lines shall be developed as shown in Figure 3 of EC Standard 60216-1 for the candidate (line A) and reference (line B) materials. A correlation time shall be determined from line B corresponding to the established RTl of the reference material. The RTl assigned to the candidate material shall be that temperature from line A that corresponds to the determined correlation time.
(c)ln the absence of a reference material (line A only), a correlation time of 100 000 h may be used.
(d) RTl values shall be assigned in accordance with the following standard temperature ranges:
(i) 5°C increments up to 130C;
(ii) 10°C increments from 130 through 180C*; and
(iii) 20°C increments over 180C*.
*Includes 155,190and 210°C as possible RTI values.
Table 6 Relative Thermal Indices Based upon Past Field-Test Performance and Chemical Structure
Thermal endurance tests reveal how prolonged exposure to elevated temperature produces irreversible degradation of the properties of insulation. This is not equivalent to a continuous use temperature rating. 7.2 Thermal Endurance Tests
The compound shall be identified on the bag, carton, or container, where practical, with the following information: 8.Marking
(a) manufacturer’s name, trade name, trademark, or polymer identification;
(b) compound number;
(c) colour number, where appropriate; and
(d) batch number, lot number, or date of manufacture.
Although the tests specified in Clauses 4 to 7 may be used in end-product testing, their primary purpose is to provide a directory of plastic materials with recorded results for those tests that are relevant for any given plastic compound marketed by a given manufacturer. The behaviour of plastic materials in the finished product may be influenced significantly by the geometry, size, and manufacturing process of the finished plastic material in the end product. 9.1 General 9.End-Product Testing
Where a material is classified as HB or is not classified for flammability by the tests specified under Clause 4, the needle-flame test described in Appendix B may be used as an equivalent to a V-2 rating for the end product if the flame is applied for 30 s and removed for 60 s and then reapplied to the same location for 30 s (see Figure 12). 9.2.1 Needle-Flame Test (IEC Standard 60695-2-2) 9.2 Alternative Flame Test
Figure 12 Needle Burner
Figure 12 Needle Burner
See Appendix B 9.2.2 Test Procedure
Unless otherwise specified in the relevant Standard, the specimen shall be considered to have with stood the needle-flame test if one of the following occurs: 9.2.3 Evaluation of Test Results
(a) the specimen does not ignite;
(b) flames or burning or glowing particles falling from the specimen do not spread fire to the surrounding parts, and there is no flame or glowing of the specimen at the end of application of the test flame;
(c) the duration of burning is less than 60 s after each application; or
(d) the extent of burning specified in the relevant Standard has not been exceeded
A glow-wire ignition test for the end product shall be conducted according to Clause 4.3.5. 9.3.1 General 9.3 Glow-Wire Rating for End Product
The burning time shall not exceed 60 s as determined by t, + 30. The sample shall not burn for more than 30 s after the removal of the glow-wire. The indication material shall not be ignited by dripping particles.
Note: Tests are based on the test methods specified in lEC Publication 60695-2-1/1.
The following observations and measurements shall be made: 9.3.2 Observations and Measurements
(a) duration of application (t,);
(b) duration from the beginning of the application to ignition of the specimen or tissue paper (t );
(c) duration from the beginning of the application to when the flame extinquishes during or after removal of the glow-wire (t.);
(d) the maximum height of the flame from the specimen that exists for longer than 1 s, recorded to the next highest 5 mm; and
(e) ignition of the tissue shall be noted.
Note: Burning material removed from the specimen with the glow-wire does not constitute a failure.
(a) minimum spacings; 9.4.1 The tests for thermal properties given in Clause 5.8 may not always reflect actual performance under elevated temperature conditions. Where the following must be maintained, it is recommended that the end product be tested as stated in Clause 9.4.2: 9.4 Mould Stress-Relief Test
(b) restriction of access to live and bare live parts; and
(c) strain relief requirements for cord-connected equipment.
(a) One sample of the complete equipment (in the case of an enclosure), or the part under consideration, shall be placed in a ful-draft circulating-air oven maintained at a uniform temperature at east 10°C higher than the maximum temperature of the material measured under actual operating conditions, but not less than 70 °C in any case. The sample shall remain in the oven for 7 h, After carefully removing it from the oven and returning it to room temperature, the sample shall be investigated for compliance with Clause 9.4.3. 9.4.2 One sample of the equipment shall be conditioned in accordance with either ltem (a) or (b) below: Equipment that is not loaded or is not continuously loaded during the normal temperature test shall be connected to 106% or 94% of normal rated voltage, whichever results in higher temperatures ln any case, the equipment shall be operated for 7 h. After its careful remova from the test cell, the sample shall be investigated for compliance with Clause 9.4.3.
(b) One sample of the complete equipment shall be placed in a test cell. The air temperature within the cell, as measured at the supporting surface of the equipment, shall be maintained at 60 ±2 °C. The equipment shall be operated in the same way as for the normal temperature test specified in the relevant CEC, Part l/ Standard.
(a) becomes unsafe to operate; 9.4.3 Conditioning of the equipment, as described in Clause 9.4.2, shall not result in distortion such that the equipment
(b) cannot be operated as intended; or
(c) will not comply with the requirements in the applicable CEC, Part I Standard.
The tests shall not be applied to handles, levers,knobs, the face of cathode ray tubes, or transparent or translucent covers of indicating or measuring devices unless parts at hazardous voltage are accessible when the cover is removed. (Accessibility is defined by the end-product Standard.) 9.5.1 Enclosures sha have adeduate mechanical strenath and shall be so constructed as to withstand such rough handling as may be expected in normal use. Acceptance criteria are given in Clause 9.5.4. 9.5 Physical Abuse
(a) A sample consisting of the complete enclosure or a portion thereof representing the largest unreinforced area shall be supported in its normal position. A solid smooth steel sphere, approximately 50 mm in diameter and with a mass of 500 ±25 g, shall be allowed to fall freely from rest through a vertical distance of 1300 mm onto the sample. (Vertical surfaces are exempt from this test.) 9.5.2 Except for hand-held equipment (see Clause 9.5.3), external surfaces of enclosures, the failure of which would qive access to hazardous parts, shall be tested as follows:
(b) The steel sphere shall be suspended by a cord and swung as a pendulum in order to apply a horizontal impact, dropping through a vertical distance of 1300 mm (see Figure 13). (Horizontal surfaces are exempt from this test.)
(c)lf the pendulum test is inconvenient, horizontal impacts on vertical or sloping surfaces may be simulated by mounting the sample at 90 ° to its normal position and applying the vertical impact test instead of the pendulum test.
The hardwood surface shall consist of a layer of tongue-and-groove oak flooring approximately 13 mm thick and 57 mm wide, mounted on two layers of plywood each 19-20 mm thick, all supported on a concrete or equivalent nonresilient floor. 9.5.3 Hand-held equipment shall be subjected to a drop test. A sample of the complete equipment shall be subjected to three impacts that result from being dropped 1 m onto a hardwood surface in positions likely to produce the most adverse results.
In case of doubt, Supplementary or reinforced insulation shall be subjected to a dielectric strength test as specified in the end-product Standard.  9.5.4 After the tests of Clauses 9.5.2 and 9.5.3, the sample shall comply with the requirements for mechanica and electrical shock hazards (such as accessibility of hazardous voltages, electrical spacings, guarding of hazardous parts, and the strain-relief requirements for power-supply cords) and shall show no signs of interference with the operation of safety features such as thermal cut-outs, overcurrent protection devices, or interlocks. 
Damage to finish, dents and chips that do not adversely affect safety or protection against water, cracks not visible to normal or corrected-to- normal vision, and surface cracks in fibre-reinforced mouldings and the like shall be ignored.
Note: lfa separate enclosure or part of an enclosure is used for a test, it may be necessary to reassemble such parts on the equipment in order to check compliance.
Polymeric material used for supporting live parts shall be sufficiently resistant to heat. 9.6 Ball Pressure Test (EC Standard 60695-10-2)
Performance shall be assessed by subjecting two samples of the material (or compound) to a ball pressure test by means of the apparatus shown in Figure 14, except that the test is not carried out on parts of ceramic material.
The surface of the part to be tested shall be placed in the horizontal position and a steel ball of 5 mm diameter shall be pressed against this surface with a force of 20 N.
The test shall be carried out in a heating cabinet at a temperature that is 40 ±2 °C above the temperature of the part attained during the normal temperature test specified in the relevant CEC,Part ll Standard.
After 1 h, the ball shall be removed from the sample and within 10 s, the sample shall be immersed in cold water to cool the sample down to room temperature. The diameter of the impression caused by the ball shall be measured, and it shall not exceed 2 mm.
The end-product Standard should include an abnormal test, or tests, to ensure that the end product does not ignite, distort, or melt to create a fire or shock hazard under such abnormal conditions. 9.7 Abnormal Conditions

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