Search
Search
Search

IEC 62133-2 Testing for Lithium Systems

IEC 62133-2 testing for lithium systems is a test method often used by lithium battery manufacturers. The testing procedures under IEC 62133-2 cover a range of parameters essential for evaluating lithium battery systems. From electrical performance assessments to environmental durability tests, The standard provides a comprehensive framework to ensure that these batteries meet stringent safety and quality benchmarks.

For manufacturers and testing laboratories seeking to conform to IEC 62133-2, a thorough understanding of the standard’s requirements is essential. Compliance with IEC 62133-2 not only signifies a commitment to quality and safety but also enhances the credibility and trustworthiness of lithium battery products. By undergoing rigorous testing as per the standard’s requirements, Manufacturers can demonstrate the reliability and performance of their products, Instilling confidence in consumers and stakeholders alike.

IEC 62133-2 Testing for Lithium Systems
Standard Application Electrolyte Battery types
IEC 62133-1 Portable Sealed Secondary Nickel Cells And Batteries Alkaline or Other Non-Acid Nickel Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)
IEC 62133-2 Portable Sealed Secondary Lithium Cells And Batteries Non-Acid Lithium Ion (Li-ion), Lithium Polymer (Li-polymer), Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)

The table shows that IEC 62133-1 is for portable sealed secondary nickel cells and batteries, and IEC 62133-2 is for portable sealed secondary lithium cells and batteries. The two standards specify the design, manufacturing, and testing requirements for batteries to ensure their safe use. The requirements include: IEC 62133-1 and IEC 62133-2 are international standards that are widely recognized worldwide. They are important tools for ensuring the safety of portable batteries.

The structure and materials of the battery must be able to withstand the conditions of normal use and accidental situations.
The battery must be able to prevent overcharging, over-discharge, overheating, and short circuit. The battery must have appropriate labels and warnings to remind users of potential safety risks.

6 Type Test and Sample Size: Tests are made with the number of cells or batteries specified in Table 1 using cells or batteries that are not more than six months old. The internal resistance of coin cells shall be measured in accordance with Annex D. Coin cells with internal resistance less than or equal to 3 Ω shall be tested in accordance with Table 1. Unless otherwise specified, tests are carried out in an ambient temperature of 20°C ±5°C.

Note: Test conditions are for type tests only and do not imply that intended use includes operation under these conditions. Similarly, the limit of six months is introduced for consistency and does not imply that battery safety is reduced after six months. This distinction underscores the importance of interpreting test parameters accurately and understanding that their scope is confined to specific testing scenarios. The temporal threshold of six months serves as a guideline for maintaining testing uniformity and should not be extrapolated to imply any degradation in battery safety post this duration.

Table 1 – Sample Size for Types Tests
Test Cell 9 (a,d) Battery
7.2.1 Continuous charge 5
7.2.2 Case stress 3
7.3.1 External short-circuit 5 per Temperature
7.3.2 External short-circuit 5
7.3.3 Free fall 3 3
7.3.4 Thermal abuse 5 per Temperature
7.3.5 Crush 5 per Temperature
7.3.6 overcharge 5
7.3.7 Forced discharge 5
7.3.8 Mechanical
-7.3.8.1 Vibration 3
-7.3.8.2 Mechanical shock 3
7.3.9 Forced internal short b. c 5 per Temperature
D.2 Measurement of the internal AC resistance for coincells 3
a. Excludes coin cells with an internal resistance greater than 3 Ω.
b. Country specific test: only required for listed countries.
c. Not applicable to coin and lithium ion polymer cells.
d. For tests requiring charge procedure of 7.1.2(procedure 2): 5 cells per temperature are tested

The safety analysis of 5.6.1(IEC 62133-2: 2017) should identify those components of the protection circuit that are critical for short-circuit,overcharge and overdischarge protection. When conducting the short-circuit test, consideration should be given to the simulation of any single fault condition that is likely to occur in the protecting circuit that would affect the short-circuit test. This includes conducting various tests such as overcharge protection, short-circuit testing, and temperature cycling to assess the battery’s safety and reliability under different operating conditions.

To ensure accurate and reliable test results, It is imperative to engage accredited testing facilities with expertise in IEC 62133-2 testing. These facilities adhere to strict quality control measures, Employ advanced equipment, and follow standardized procedures to deliver precise and actionable insights into the performance of lithium battery systems. Upon completion of testing, manufacturers receive detailed test reports that document the findings, Observations, and compliance status of their lithium battery products. These reports serve as valuable resources for assessing performance, Identifying potential areas for improvement, and demonstrating conformity with IEC 62133-2 standards.

Short-circuiting of the positive and negative terminals of the cell at high temperature shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirement 7.3.1 External Short-Circuit (Cell) 7.3 Reasonably Foreseeable Misuse
Fully charge each cell according to the second procedure in 7.1.2. Store in an ambient temperature of 55 ℃ ±5℃. After stabilization for1 h to 4 h and while still in an ambient temperature of 55 ℃ ±5℃, the cell is short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance of 80 mΩ ±20 mΩ. The cell remains on test for 24 h or until the surface temperature declines by 20 % of the maximum temperature rise, whichever is the sooner. b) Test
No fire, no explosion. c) Acceptance Criteria
Short-circuiting of the positive and negative terminals of the battery shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirement 7.3.2 External Short-Circuit (Battery)
A fully charged battery according to the procedure in 7.1.1 is stored in an ambient temperature of 20℃ ±5℃. The battery is then short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance of 80 mΩ ±20 mΩ. The battery remains on test for 24 h or until the case temperature of battery declines by 20 % of the maximum temperature rise, whichever is the sooner. However, in case of a rapid decline in the short-circuit current, the battery should remain on test for an additional one hour after the current reaches a low end steady state condition. This typically refers to a condition where the per cell voltage (series cells only) of the battery is below 0,8 V and is decreasing by less than 0,1 V in a 30-min period. b) Test
A single fault in the discharge protection circuit should be conducted on one to four (depending upon the protection circuit) of the five samples before conducting the short­ circuit test. A single fault applies to protective component parts such as MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor), fuse, thermostat or positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor.
Note: Examples of single fault conditions in the discharge protection circuit can include shorting over a discharge MOSFET or over a fuse or other protection device. Protection devices found to meet the requirements of applicable component standards such as those outlined in Annex F or electronics circuits evaluated for functional safety are not subject to single fault condtions.
No fire, no explosion. c) Acceptance Criteria
Dropping a cell or battery (for example, from a bench top) shall not cause fire or explosion a) Requirement 7.3.3 Free Fall
Free fall test is conducted at an ambient temperature of 20 ℃ ±5℃, by using cells or batteries that are charged to a fully charged state, in accordance with the first procedure in 7.1.1. Each cell or battery is dropped three times from a height of 1,0 m onto a flat concrete floor or metal floor. The cells or batteries are dropped so as to obtain impacts in random orientations. After the test, the cell orbattery shall be put on rest for a minimum of 1 h and then a visual inspection shall be performed. b) Test
No fire. no explosion c) Acceptance Criteria
An extremely high temperature shall not cause fire orexplosion. a) Requirement 7.3.4 Thermal Abuse (Cells)
Each fully charged cell, according to the second procedure in 7.1.2, is placed in a gravity or circulating air-convection oven, in an ambient temperature of 20 °C±5 °C, for 1 h. The oven  temperature  is  raised  at  a  rate  of 5 °C/min土2 °C/min  to  a  temperature of 130 °C±2 °C. The cell remains at this temperature for 30 min before the test is terminated. b) Test
Nofire, no explosion. c) Acceptance Criteria
Severe crushing of a cell shall not cause fire or explosion.  a) Requirement 7.3.5 Crush (Cells)
Each fully charged cell, charged according to the second procedure at the upper limit charging temperature in 7.1.2, is immediately transferred and crushed between two flat surfaces in an ambient temperature. The force for the crushing is applied by a device exerting a force of 13 kN±0,78 kN. Once the maximum force has been applied, or an abrupt voltage drop of one-third of the original voltage has been obtained, the force is released. b) Test
A cylindrical or prismatic cell is crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus. Test only the wide side of prismatic cells
A coin cell shall be crushed by applying the force on its flat surface.
Nofire, no explosion. c) Acceptance Criteria
Charging for longer periods than specified by the manufacturer shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirement 7.3.6 Over-Charging Of Battery
The test shall be carried out in an ambient temperature of 20 ℃ ±5℃. Each test battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0,2 It A, to a final discharge voltage specified by the manufacturer. Sample batteries shall then be charged at a constant current of 2,0 It A, using a supply voltage which is: b) Test
• 1,4 times the upper limit charging voltage presented in Table A.1 (but not to exceed 6,0 V) for single cell/cell block batteries or
• 1,2 times the upper limit charging voltage presented in Table A.1 per cell for series connected multi-cell batteries, and
• sufficient to maintain a current of 2,0 It A throughout the duration of the test or until the supply voltage isreached.
A thermocouple shall be attached to each test battery.
For batteries with a case, the temperature shall be measured on the battery case. The test
shall be continued until the temperature of the outer casereaches steady state conditions (less than 10 ℃ change in a 30-min period) or returns to ambient.
No fire, no explosion. c) Acceptance Criteria
A cell shall withstand polarity reversal without causing fire or explosion. A protective device in a battery or system can be adopted. a) Requirement 7.3.7 Forced Discharge (Cells) 
Discharge a single cell to the lower limit discharge voltage specified by the cell manufacturer. b) Test
The discharged cell is then subjected to a forced discharge at 1 It  A to the negative value of the upper limit charging voltage. The total duration for the forced discharge testing is 90 min.
If the discharge voltage reaches the negative value of upper limit charging voltage within the testing duration, the voltage shall be maintained at the negative value of the upper limit charging voltage by reducing the current for the remainder of the testing duration (Case 1 of Figure 1)
If the discharge voltage does not reach the negative value of upper limit charging voltage within the testing duration, the test shall be terminated at the end of the testing duration (Case 2 of Figure 1)
No fire, no explosion. c) Acceptance Criteria
Figure 1-Forced Discharge Time Chart
Vibration encountered during transportation and use shall not cause leakage, fire or explosion. a) Requirement 7.3.8 Mechanical Tests (Batteries)
7.3.8.1 Viibration
Test batteries, fully charged in accordance with the charging procedure of 7.1.1, shall be firmly secured to the platform of the vibration machine without distorting them in such a manner as to faithfully transmit the vibration. Test batteries shall be subjected to sinusoidal vibration according to Table 3. This cycle shall be repeated 12 times for a total of approximately 3 h for each of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions. One of the directions shall be perpendicular to the terminal face b) Test
No fire, no explosion, no rupture, no leakage or venting. c) Acceptance Criteria
Table-3 Conditions for Vibration Test
Shock encountered during transportation and use shall not cause leakage, fire or explosion. This test simulates rough handling during transport and use. a) Requirement 7.3.8 Mechanical Tests (Batteries)
7.3.8.2 Mechanical Shock
Test batteries, fully charged in accordance with the charging procedure of 7.1.1, shall be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which will support all mounting surfaces of each test battery. Each test battery shall be subjected to three shocks in each direction of three mutually perpendicular mounting positions of the battery for a total of 18 shocks. For each shock, the parameters given in Table 4 shall be applied. b) Test procedure
There shall be no leakage, no venting, no rupture, no explosion and no fire during this test. c) Acceptance criteria
Table 4 - Shock Parameters
A forced internal short-circuit test for cylindrical cells and prismatic cells shall not cause a fire. Cell manufacturers shall keep a record to meet the requirements. A new design evaluation shall be conducted by the cell manufacturer or a third party test house. a) Requirement 7.3.9 Design Evaluation – Forced Internal Short-Circuit (Cells)
NOTE: This is a country specific test, which is only applicable to France, Japan, Korea and Switzerland and is not required on lithium ion polymer cells.
The forced internal short-circuit test is performed in a chamber according to the following procedure. b) Test
1) Number of samples
This test shall be carried out on five lithium ion cells per test temperature.
2) Charging procedure
i) Conditioning charge and discharge
The sample shall be charged at 20 ℃土5 ℃ according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. The sample is then discharged at 20 ℃土5 ℃, at a constant current of 0,2 It A, down to the final voltage specified by the manufacturer
ii) Storage procedure
The test cell shall be stored for 1 h to 4 h at an ambient temperature as specified in Table 5.
iii) Ambient temperature
Table 5 - Ambient temperature for cell test
iv) Charging procedure for forced internal short test
The test cell shall be charged at an ambient temperature as specified in Table 5, at the upper limit charging voltage at the constant current specified by the manufacturer. When the upper limit charging voltage is reached, continue charging at constant voltage until the charge current drops to 0,05 It A
3) Pressing the winding core with nickel particle
A temperature-controlled chamber and special press equipment are needed forthe test.
The moving part of the press equipment shall be able to move at constant speed and to be stopped immediately when an internal short-circuit is detected.
i) Preparation for the test
A: The temperature of the chamber is controlled as specified in Table 5. Sample preparation guidance is provided in Clause A.5 and in Figure A.6 and Figure A.9. Put the aluminium laminated bag with the winding core and nickel particle into the chamber for 45 min±15 min.
B: Remove the winding core from the sealed package and attach the terminals for voltage measurement and the thermocouple(s) for temperature measurement on the surface of the winding core. Set the winding core under the pressure equipment making sure to locate the point of placement of the nickel particle under the pressing jig.
To prevent evaporation of electrolyte, finish the work within 10 min from removing the winding core from the chamber for temperature conditioning to closing the chamberdoor where the equipment is located.
C: Remove the insulating sheet and close the chamber door.
ii) Internal short-circuit
A: Confirm that the winding core surface temperature is as defined in Table 5, and then start the test.
B: The bottom surface of the moving part of the press equipment (i.e. pressing jig) is made of nitrile rubber or acrylic resin, which is put on the 10 mm x 10 mm stainless steel shaft. Details of the pressing jigs are shown in Figure 2. The nitrile rubber bottom surface is for a cylindrical cell test. For a prismatic cell test, 5 mm x 5 mm (2 mm thickness) acrylic resin is put on the nitrile rubber
The fixture is moved down at a speed of 0,1 mm/s, monitoring the cell voltage When a voltage drop caused by the internal short-circuit is detected, stop the descent immediately and keep the pressing jig in the position for 30 s, and then release the pressure. The voltage is monitored at a rate of more than 100 times per second. If the voltage drops more than 50 mV compared to the initial voltage, an internal short-circuit has been determined to have occurred. If the force of the press reaches 800 N for a cylindrical cell or 400 N for a prismatic cell before the 50 mV voltage drop, stop the descent immediately.
Figure 2 - Jig for pressing
No fire. Record the force when an internal short-circuit occurs if there was no fire. c) Acceptance criteria

In the realm of lithium battery testing and certification, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) plays a crucial role in establishing standards to ensure the safety, performance, and quality of these energy storage systems. Among the key standards developed by the IEC, IEC 62133-2 stands out as a pivotal framework for evaluating lithium systems with rigorous testing protocols and criteria. IEC 62133-2 is a specific standard within the broader IEC 62133 series that focuses on the testing requirements for lithium-based batteries.

It outlines the procedures and specifications for assessing the safety and performance of these batteries, Encompassing various aspects such as mechanical integrity, electrical characteristics, and thermal behavior. IEC 62133-2 plays a vital role in shaping the landscape of lithium battery testing and certification, setting benchmarks for safety, quality, and performance. By aligning with this standard and leveraging accredited testing facilities, Manufacturers can ensure the reliability and integrity of their lithium systems, Driving innovation and trust in the global market.

This charging procedure applies to subclauses other than those specified in 7.1.2 7.1.1 First Procedure  7.1 Charging Procedures for Test Purposes
Unless otherwise stated in this document, the charging procedure for test purposes is carried out in an ambient temperature of 20℃ ±5℃, using the method declared by the manufacturer.
Prior to charging, the battery shall have been discharged at 20℃ ±5℃ at a constant current of 0,2 It A down to a specified final voltage.
This charging procedure applies only to 7.3.1, 7.3.4, 7.3.5, and 7.3.9. 7.1.2 Second Procedure
After stabilization for 1 h and 4 h, respectively, at ambient temperature of highest test temperature and lowest test temperature, as specified in Table 2, cells are charged by using the upper limit charging voltage and maximum charging current, until the charging current is reduced to 0,05 It A, using a constant voltage charging method.
Table 2 Condition of Charging Procedure
See Figures A.1 and A.2 for an example of an operating region for charge and discharge. SeeTable A.1 for a list of lithium ion chemistries and examples of operating region parameters.
A continuous charge at constant voltage shall not cause leakage, fire or explosion. a) Requirement 7.2.1 Continuous Charging At Constant Voltage (Cells)  7.2 lntended Use
Fully charged cells are subjected for 7 days to a charge using the charging method for current and standard voltage specified by the cell manufacturer b) Test
No fire, no explosion, no leakage. c) Acceptance Criteria
lnternal components of batteries shall not be exposed during use at high temperature. This requirement only applies to batteries with a moulded case. a) Requirement 7.2.2 Case Stress At High Ambient Temperature (Battery)
Fully charged batteries, according to the first procedure in 7.1.1, are exposed to a moderately high temperature to evaluate case integrity. The battery is placed in an air circulating oven at a temperature of 10°C ±2℃. The batteries remain in the oven for 7 h, after which they are removed and allowed to return to room temperature. b) Test
No physical distortion of the battery case resulting in exposure of internal protective components and cells c) Acceptance Criteria
Thermal Shock Chamber

Environmental Chambers For Battery Testing|Battery Test Chambers

With the increasing demand for high-performance lithium ion batteries, ensuring their safety and reliability through rigorous testing is crucial. Wewon Environ

Benchtop Environmental Chamber

Battery Crush Tester – Lithium Battery Crush Testing – Battery Safety Testing

Battery crush tester simulation of various types of power lithium batteries in the process of use, the battery suffered compression, Manually present the different

Benchtop Environmental Chamber

Nail Penetration Tester For Battery Nail Penetration And Safety Testing

Nail penetration tester also named lithium ion battery nail penetration test machine. The nail penetration tester is suitable for all kinds of battery level simulation in

Temperature Humidity Chamber

Nail Penetration Test Chamber for Lithium Ion Battery, Lithium Batteries

Nail penetration test chamber is an indispensable testing equipment for battery manufacturers and research institutes. The nail penetration test chamber is suitable for

Thermal Shock Chamber

Battery Test Chambers for Lithium Ion Batteries Explosion-Proof Test

The explosion-proof test chamber for lithium ion batteries explosion-proof test is constructed using high-quality materials that are designed to withstand extreme temp

Benchtop Environmental Chamber

Battery Flammability Test Chamber for Lithium Ion Batteries Fire Test

Battery flammability test chamber tests the safety performance of the battery through the combustion test. It is an indispensable testing equipment for battery manufactu

Benchtop Environmental Chamber

Short Circuit Testing Chamber for Lithium Ion Battery Short Circuit Test Machine

The short circuit test chamber is used to test whether the lithium ion battery will explode and catch fire under the condition of a certain resistance short connection, and

Temperature Humidity Chamber

Battery Testing Equipment for Lithium Metal and Lithium Ion Batteries Testing

UN 38.3 refers to Clause 38.3 of Part 3 of the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria for the Transport of Dangerous Goods specially formulated by the United Nati

Please enter your email, so we can follow up with you.