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IEC 62619 Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-Acid Electrolytes – Safety Requirements for Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries, For Use In Industrial Applications

The IEC 62619 standard outlines essential performance indicators for battery energy storage systems, including energy density, efficiency, cycle life, temperature range, charging and discharging characteristics, among others. These performance requirements serve as a benchmark to guarantee that the battery systems operate as intended, Meeting the demands of industrial applications for sustained performance. It is important to note that the specific versions and requirements of the standards may undergo changes, Therefore it is advisable to refer to the latest version of the IEC 62619 standard for the most accurate information.

Emphasizing the safety of battery systems, IEC 62619 sets forth stringent requirements to mitigate risks associated with temperature control, Short circuit protection, overcharging, over-discharging protection, and Battery Management Systems (BMS). Safety is a paramount consideration in the design of energy storage systems, Given the potential risks such as fire hazards and explosions that batteries may pose. Considering the diverse environmental conditions in which battery systems operate, The IEC 62619 standard addresses aspects like temperature range, humidity, altitude, and other environmental factors.

These considerations are vital for ensuring the reliable performance of battery systems across various geographic and climatic settings. IEC 62619 also stipulates marking requirements and standardized testing procedures for battery systems to ensure consistency and comparability across products. This facilitates both manufacturers and users in gaining a clear understanding of the performance and characteristics of the battery systems, fostering transparency and reliability in the market.

IEC 62619 Secondary Cells and Batteries Containing Alkaline or Other Non-Acid Electrolytes - Safety Requirements for Secondary Lithium Cells and Batteries, For Use In Industrial Applications
The Prior to charging, the cell or battery system shall be discharged in an ambient temperature of 25 °C ±5°C, at a constant current of 0,2 I A down to a specified final voltage. 7.1 Charging Procedures for Test Purposes
Unless otherwise stated in this document, cells or battery systems shall be charged in an ambient temperature of 25 °C ±5°C, using the method specified by the manufacturer.
Short-circuit between the positive and negative terminals shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirements 7.2.1 External Short-Circuit Test (Cell Or Cell Block) 7.2 Reasonably Foreseeable Misuse
Fully charged cells are stored in an ambient temperature of  25 °C ±5°C. Each cell is then short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance of 30 mΩ ±10 mΩ. b) Test
The cells are to remain on test for 6 h or until the case temperature declines by 80 % of the maximum temperature rise,whichever is the sooner.
No fire.no explosion. c) Acceptance criteria
An impact to the cell as mentioned in 7.2.2 b) shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirements 7.2.2 Lmpact Test (Cell Or Cell Block) 
The cell or cell block shall be discharged at a constant current of 0,2 I A, to 50 % capacity of the rated capacity. b) Test
The cell or cell block is placed on a flat concrete or metal floor. A type 316 stainless steel   bar with a diameter of 15,8 mm t 0,1 mm and at least 60 mm in length or the longest dimension of the cell, whichever is greater, is placed across the centre of the cell or cell block. A 9,1 kg rigid mass is then dropped from a height of 610 mm + 25 mm onto the bar placed on the sample.
A cylindrical or prismatic cell is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat concrete or metal floor and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15,8 mm diameter curved surface living across the centre of the test sample. A prismatic cell is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the impact. Each sample is to be subjected to only a single impact with separate samples to be used for each impact (see Figure 1).
In the case of a metal floor, external short circuit of the cell or cell block with the floor should be avoided by appropriate measures.
Pouch cells are tested as prismatic cells.
No fire.no explosion. c) Acceptance criteria
IEC 62619 Figure 1 Configuration of the impact test
The drop test is conducted on a cell or cell block, and battery system. The test method and the height of the drop are determined by the test unit weight as shown in Table 2. 7.2.3.1 General  
IEC 62619 Table 2 Drop test method and condition 7.2.3 Drop Test (Cell Or Cell Block, And Battery System)
This test is applied when the mass of the test unit is less than 20 kg 7.2.3.2 Whole drop test (cell or cell block, and battery system)
Dropping the test unit shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirements
Each fully charged test unit is dropped three times from a height shown in Table 2 onto a flat concrete or metal floor. b) Test
If the mass of the test unit is less than 7 kg, the test unit is dropped so as to obtain impacts in random orientations. lf the mass of the test unit is 7 kg or more but less than 20 kg, the test shall be performed with the test unit dropped in the bottom down direction. The bottom surface of the test unit is specified by the manufacturer.
After the test, the test units shall be put on rest for a minimum of 1 h, and then a visual inspection shall be performed.
If the floor of the test room is metal, external short circuit of cell or cell block, and battery system with the floor should be avoided by appropriate measures.
No fire.no explosion. c) Acceptance criteria
This test is applied when the mass of the test unit is 20 kg or more 7.2.3.3 Edge and corner drop test (cell or cell block, and battery system)
Dropping the test unit shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirements
A fully charged test unit is dropped two times from a height shown in Table 2 onto a flat concrete or metal floor. The drop test conditions shall ensure, with test arrangements as shown in Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4, reproducible impact points for the shortest edge drop impact and the corner impact The two impacts. per impact type. shall be on the same corner and on the same shortest edge. For the corner and edge drops, the test unit shall be oriented in such a way that a straight line drawn through the corner/edge to be struck and the test unit geometric centre is approximately perpendicular to the impact surface. After the test, the test unit shall be put on rest for a minimum of 1 h, and then a visual inspection shall be performed. b) Test
If the floor of the test room is metal, external short circuit of cell or cell block, and battery system with the floor should be avoided by appropriate measures.
No fire, no explosion. c) Acceptance criteria
IEC 62619 Figure 2 Impact location Figure 3 Configuration for the shortest edge drop test
IEC 62619 Figure 4 Configuration for the corner drop test
An elevated temperature exposure shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirements 7.2.4 Thermal Abuse Test (Cell Or Cell Block)
Each fully charged cell, stabilized in an ambient temperature of 25 °C ±5°C, is placed in a gravity or circulating air-convection oven. b) Test
The oven temperature is raised at a rate of 5°C / min ±2 °C /min to a temperature of 85°C±5°C
The cell remains at this temperature for 3 h before the test is discontinued.
No fire, no explosion. c) Acceptance criteria
This test shall be performed for those battery systems that are provided with only a single control or protection for the charging voltage control. For those battery systems provided with two or more independent protections) or control(s) for the charging voltage control, this test may be waived. 7.2.5 Overcharge Test (Cell Or Cell Block)
Note: An example of the two or more independent protection(s) or controls) is as follows
1) a measurement device to monitor each cell voltage in a battery system with a function to control the charging current to prevent the highest cell voltage from exceeding the upper limit charging voltage; and
2) a diagnostic monitoring system that detects the failure of the cell voltage monitoring device and functions to terminate the charging. For example, a diagnostic monitoring system can be realized by comparing the total battery system voltage measured directly and the voltage calculated by summing up each cel voltage.
Charging for longer periods than specified by the cell manufacturer shall not cause fire or explosion. a) Requirements
The test shall be carried out in an ambient temperature of 25 C 5 C. Each test cell shall be discharged at a constant current of 0,2 I A to a final voltage specified by the manufacturer. Sample cells shall then be charted with a constant current eaua to the maximum specified charging current of the battery system until the voltage reaches the maximum voltage value that is possible under the condition where the original charging control of the battery system does not work. Then, the charging is terminated. The voltage and temperature should be monitored during the test. b) Test
Regarding the battery system with single cells connected in parallel, a cell charging current value, calculated by dividing the maximum charging current of the battery system by the number of parallel cells,is applied.
NOTE The maximum charging current of the battery system” described in this Sub clause 7.2.5 b) is different from the maximum charging current of the single cell defined in 3.21.
The test shall be continued until the temperature of the cell surface reaches steady state conditions (less than 10 C change in a 30-min period) or returns to ambient temperature.
No fire no explosion. C) Acceptance criteria
A cell in a battery system shall withstand a forced discharge without causing fire or explosion. a) Requirements 7.2.6 Forced Discharge Test (Cell Or Cell Block)
The test shall be carried out in an ambient temperature of 25 C 5 C. Each test cell shall be discharged at a constant current of 0,2 I A to a final voltage specified by the manufacturer, A discharged cell is subjected to a forced discharge at a constant current ot 1,0 It A for a test period of 90 min. At the end of the test period, a visual inspection shall be performed. b) Test
If the voltage in discharge reaches the target voltage shown below within the test period the voltage shall be kept at the target voltage by reducing the current for the remaining test period. The target voltage is determined as follows:
i) lf the battery system is provided with two or more independent protection(s) or control(s) for discharging voltage control or the battery system has only a single cell or cell block: Target voltage is minus the value of the upper limit charging voltage of the cell.
ii) lf the battery system is provided with only a single or no protection or control for the discharging voltage control:
Target voltage is minus the value of (n-1) multiplied by the upper limit charging voltage of the cell. where n is the number of cells connected in series in the battery system.
If the maximum discharging current of the cell is less than 1,0 I A, perform a reverse charging at the current for the test period shown below:
No fire no explosion. c) Acceptance criteria
The purpose of the test is to determine that an internal short-circuit within a cell will not result in fire of the entire battery system or fire propagating outside the battery system. This shall be demonstrated either at the cell level according to 7.3.2 internal short-circuit test or at the battery system level according to 7.3.3 propagation test. 7.3.1 General 7.3 Considerations for Internal Short-Circuit – Design Evaluation
A forced internal short-circuit test for cylindrical cells and prismatic cells shall not cause fire. An evaluation of a newly designed cell shall be conducted by the cell manufacturer or a third-party test house. a) Requirement 7.3.2 Internal Short-Circuit Test (Cell)
The forced internal short-circuit test is performed in a chamber according to the following procedure. All the tests are carried out in an ambient temperature of 25 C ±5 C b) Test
Prior to charging, the cell shall be discharged at a constant current of 0,2 I A, down to a specified final voltage. 1) Charging procedure
Then, the cell shall be charged at the upper limited charging voltage at the constant current specified by the manufacturer, continue charging at constant voltage at upper limited charge current drops to 0,05 A.
A temperature-controlled chamber and special press equipment are needed for the test 2) Pressing the winding core with the nickel particle
The moving part of the press equipment shall be able to move at constant speed and to be stopped immediately when an internal short-circuit is detected.
i) Preparation for the test
The temperature of the chamber is controlled at 25℃ ±5℃. Refer to the sample preparation guidance in Clause A.5 and Clause A.6 of lEC 62133-2:2017. Put the aluminium laminated bag with the winding core and nickel particle into the chamber for 45 min 15 min.
Remove the winding core from the sealed package and attach the terminals for voltage measurement and the thermocouples) for temperature measurement on the surface of the winding core. Set the winding core under the pressure equipment making sure to locate the point of placement of the nickel particle under the pressing jig.
To prevent evaporation of electrolyte, finish the work within 10 min from removing the winding core from the chamber for temperature conditioning to closing the chamber door where the equipment is located.
Remove the insulating sheet and close the chamber door.
ii) Internal short-circuit
The bottom surface of the moving part of the press equipment (i.e. pressing jig) is made of nitrile rubber or acrylic resin, which is put on the 10 mm x 10 mm stainless steel shaft
Details of the pressing jigs are shown in Figure 5. The nitrile rubber bottom surface is for a cylindrical cell test. For a prismatic cell test, 5 mm x 5 mm (2 mm thickness) acrylic resin is put on the nitrile rubber.
IEC 62619 Figure 5 Jig for pressing
The fixture is moved down at a speed of 0.1 mm/s monitoring the cell voltage. When a voltage drop caused by the internal short-circuit is detected, stop the descent immediately and keep the pressing jig in the position for 30 s, and then release the pressure. The voltage is monitored at a rate of more than 100 times per second. lf the voltage drops more than 50 mV compared the initial voltage, an internal short-circuit has been determined to have occurred. lf the force of the press reaches 800 N for a cylindrical cell or 400 N for a prismatic cell before the 50 mV voltage drop, stop the descent immediately.
In the case of a prismatic cell with either a stacking type or folding type electrode element the nickel particle should be inserted at the centre of the outer end positive and negative electrode pair, and the maximum pressing pressure is 400 N.
The sample preparation procedure may be changed from the procedure outlined in 7.3.2 2)i), it may be performed before the charging. For example: the nickel particle may be inserted into a discharged electrode element and then charged,or the nickel particle may be inserted into the electrode element before electrolyte fill into and then it may be assembled, filled with electrolyte and charged. ln these assemblies a polyethylene bag and/or an aluminium-laminated bag can be used instead of the meta case for the actual cell.
To judge that an internal short between the positive and negative electrodes or substrate has occurred, it is acceptable to use a voltage drop of less than 50 mV if a high accurate voltage meter with enough accuracy to detect the voltage drop is used, and the actual short circuit location can be confirmed with an inspection of the internal short-circuit location on the sample after the test.
The applied pressure and the voltage behaviour shall be recorded, and the appearance of the short-circuit location shall be recorded by photograph or other means.
No fire. c) Acceptance criteria
This test evaluates the ability of a battery system to withstand a single cell thermal runaway event so that a thermal runaway event does not result in the battery system fire. a) Requirement 7.3.3 Propagation Test (Battery System)
The battery system is fully charged and then left until the cells stabilize in an ambient temperature of 25 °C ±5℃. One cell in the battery system (hereafter target cell) is e.g. heated by laser until the cell enters into thermal runaway. After thermal runaway in the cell is initiated, the triggering source is turned off and battery system is observed for 8 h. b) Test
See Annex B for an example test procedure by laser.
Other methods than the laser to initiate thermal runaway in one cell are allowed See Annex C.
The battery system may be modified to facilitate the thermal runaway of the target cell. The modification should be minimized and it shall not affect the thermal properties of the battery system.
The method used to initiate a thermal runaway in the target cell shall be described in the test report.
No external fire from the battery system, no battery system case rupture. C) Acceptance criteria
If the battery system has no outer covering, the manufacturer shall specify the area for fire protection.

Within the realm of industrial applications, the IEC 62619:2022 standard delineates comprehensive testing procedures and requirements for the safety of secondary lithium batteries and battery cells. By adhering to the IEC 62619 standard, manufacturers can instill confidence in their products’ safety and performance, while end users can make informed decisions based on standardized assessments. The certification under IEC 62619 serves as a quality assurance measure, validating that the battery systems meet the stringent requirements set forth by the international standard.

Optimizing industrial battery solutions with IEC 62619 certification not only ensures compliance with global standards but also enhances the overall safety, reliability, and performance of energy storage systems in industrial applications. As technological advancements continue to drive the evolution of energy storage solutions, adherence to standards like IEC 62619 becomes increasingly indispensable for fostering innovation and sustainability in the energy sector.

The establishment of the IEC 62619 standard aims to ensure the performance, safety, and sustainability of battery energy storage systems in order to meet the requirements of various application areas. This standard provides a universal framework for battery manufacturers, system integrators, and end users to assess and compare the performance and safety of different energy storage battery systems. In practical applications, Adherence to these standards is crucial for ensuring the reliability and safety of energy storage systems.


IEC 62619 Secondary Cells And Batteries Containing Alkaline Or Other Non-Acid Electrolytes
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