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Thorough Overview of Reliability Testing Methods and Reference Standards

In the rapidly evolving landscape of product development and technological innovation, the importance of reliability testing cannot be overstated. A product’s success in the market hinges not just on its innovative features or appealing design but, perhaps more fundamentally, on its reliability and durability. This article delves into the intricate world of reliability testing methods and reference standards, guiding manufacturers and product developers through a comprehensive understanding of how to ensure their products stand the test of time and usage.

Reliability testing encompasses a spectrum of tests aimed at determining product endurance and performance over its expected lifetime. By identifying potential failure modes and assessing the product’s ability to operate under various conditions, reliability testing ensures that products meet and exceed customer expectations for performance, durability, and lifespan.

Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd. is a leader in providing reliability testing services to sectors like aerospace, automotive, medical, telecom, and military. Equipped with advanced testing equipment, our accredited lab offers comprehensive product reliability and performance evaluations under extreme conditions. Facilitating Reliability Testing at Wewon
Burn-in testing, Vital for semiconductors, Involves exposing products to high temperatures to accelerate aging and detect early-life failures. Burn-in testing ensures product reliability and longevity in markets. The Significance of Burn-in Testing
Effective product reliability testing requires understanding the product’s application, stressors, and performance criteria to choose applicable industry-standard and custom tests for a comprehensive assessment. Product Reliability Testing and Evaluation
Standards, like JEDEC for semiconductors, offer a framework for reliability tests, ensuring consistency, credibility, and customer confidence in product performance and quality|Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd. Importance of Standards in Reliability Testing

One of the cornerstone methodologies in reliability testing is accelerated reliability testing. This process intensifies the stress factors—such as temperature, pressure, vibration rate, and voltage—beyond the product’s normal operational parameters. The fundamental goal is to uncover potential failures and weaknesses in a significantly reduced timeframe. These accelerated conditions help predict the product’s longevity, maintenance schedules, and overall durability in real-world usage scenarios.

Reliability testing is an indispensable component of product development, offering valuable insights into a product’s durability, performance, and lifespan. By leveraging accelerated testing methods, adhering to rigorous standards, and utilizing advanced testing equipment, manufacturers can significantly enhance product reliability. Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd. remains at the forefront of offering exemplary reliability testing services, helping to usher in a new era of durable, reliable, and high-performance products across diverse industries.

Thorough Overview of Reliability Testing Methods and Reference Standards

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Reliability Test Methods Reference Standards Test Conditions for Various Types of Reliability Testing
Solder Heat Resistance Test (SHRT) JEDEC JESD22-A113
JEDEC J-STD-020 
Steps:
– 24-H Bake at 125C
– Temperature/Humidity Soak based on the MSL of the part
– 3X IR Reflow at the prescribed peak temperature (about 235C for non-Pb-free parts; 260C for Pb-free parts) 
Purpose of Solder Heat Resistance Test (SHRT): To determine the ability of the part to withstand the customer’s board mounting process; also used as preconditioning for other reliability tests
Temperature Cycle MIL-STD-883 Method 1010 – Must be conducted for a minimum of 10 cycles
–  Condition A: -55 (+0/-10) C to 85 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition B: -55 (+0/-10) C to 125 (+15,-0) C
–  Condition C: -65 (+0/-10) C to 150 (+15,-0) C
–  Condition D: -65 (+0/-10) C to 200 (+15,-0) C
–  Condition E: -65 (+0/-10) C to 300 (+15,-0) C
–  Condition F: -65 (+0/-10) C to 175 (+15,-0) C
–  Total Transfer Time <= 1 minute
–  Total Dwell Time >= 10 minutes
–  Specified Temp reached in <= 15 minutes
MIL-STD-883 Method 1010 focuses on Temperature Cycling for microcircuits. This test method exposes electronic components to repeated cycles of hot and cold temperatures, simulating the environmental stresses they might encounter during their lifespan.
Temperature Cycle JEDEC JESD22-A104  –  Recommended for lot acceptance screen :  10 cycles
–  Recommended for qualification:  1000 cycles
–  Condition A: -55 (+0/-10) C to 85 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition B: -55 (+0/-10) C to 125 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition C: -65 (+0/-10) C to 150 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition D: -65 (+0/-10) C to 200 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition F: -65 (+0/-10) C to 175 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition G: -40 (+0/-10) C to 125 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition H: -55 (+0/-10) C to 150 (+10,-0) C
–  Total Transfer Time <= 1 minute
–  Total Dwell Time >= 10 minutes
–  Specified Temp reached in <= 15 minutes  
Purpose of Temperature Cycle: To determine the resistance of a part to extremes of high and low temperatures; as well as its ability to withstand cyclical stresses.
Thermal Shock MIL-STD-883 Method 1011 –  Must be conducted for a minimum of 15 cycles
–  Condition A:  0 (+2/-10) C to 100 (+10/-2) C
–  Condition B: -55 (+0/-10) C to 125 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition C: -65 (+0,-10) C to 150 (+10,-0) C
–  Total Transfer Time < 10 seconds
–  Total Dwell Time > 2 minutes
–  Specified Temp reached in < 5 minutes
MIL-STD-883 Method 1011 focuses on Thermal Shock Testing for microcircuits. This test method exposes electronic components to rapid and extreme temperature changes to evaluate their ability to withstand such thermal stresses.
Thermal Shock JEDEC JESD22-A106  –  Must be conducted for a minimum of 15 cycles
–  Condition A:  -40 (+0/-30) C to 85 (+10/-0) C
–  Condition B: -0 (+2/-10) C to 100 (+10,-2) C
–  Condition C: -55 (+0,-10) C to 125 (+10,-0) C
–  Condition D: -65 (+0,-10) C to 150 (+10,-0) C
–  Total Transfer Time < 10 seconds
–  Total Dwell Time > 2 minutes
–  Specified Temp reached in < 5 minutes
Purpose of Thermal Shock: To determine the resistance of the part to sudden exposures to extreme changes in temperature and alternate exposures to these extremes; as well as its ability to withstand cyclical stresses.
Autoclave or Pressure Cooker Test (PCT) JEDEC JESD22-A102 – Preconditioned
– Soak at 121C/100% RH for 168 Hrs 
– Pressure = 2 atm
– Unbiased
Purpose of Autoclave or Pressure Cooker Test (PCT): To assess the ability of a product to withstand severe temperature and humidity conditions; used primarily to accelerate corrosion in the metal parts of the product
Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST) JEDEC JESD22-A110 – Preconditioned
– Soak at 130C/85% RH for 96 to 100 Hrs 
– Biased
Purpose of Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST): To  accelerate metal corrosion, particularly that of the metallizations on the die surface of the device
Burn-in MIL-STD-883 Method 1015 Early Life Burn-in: Biased bake at Tj=125C for 48 to 168 hours
Purpose of Burn-in: To eliminate units with marginal defects that can result in early life failures;
Burn-in JEDEC JESD22-A108 HTOL: Biased bake at Tj=125C for 500 to 1000 hours
Purpose of Burn-in: To determine the high temp operating lifetime of a population
Temp Humidity Bias (THB) Test JEDEC JESD22-A101 – Preconditioned
– Soak at 85C/85% RH for 1000 Hrs 
– Biased
Purpose of Temp Humidity Bias (THB) Test: To  accelerate metal corrosion, particularly that of the metallizations on the die surface of the device
High Temperature Storage (HTS)/ Stabilization Bake MIL-STD-883 Method 1008 HTS Conditions:
– Bake at 150C for 1000 Hrs
– Unbiased
Purpose of High Temperature Storage (HTS)/ Stabilization Bake: To  determine the effect on devices of storage at elevated temperatures without any electrical stresses applied.
High Temperature Storage (HTS)/ Stabilization Bake MIL-STD-883 Method 1008 Stabilization Bake Conditions:
– Duration: 24 Hrs unless otherwise stated
– Test Cond. A: 75 deg C
– Test Cond. B: 125 deg C
– Test Cond. C:
– 1000H at 100 deg C
– 168H at 125 deg C
– 24H at 150 deg C
– 20H at 155 deg C
– 16H at 160 deg C
– 12H at 165 deg C
– 8H at 170 deg C
– 6H at 175 deg C
 – 4H at 200 deg C
– Test Cond. D: 200 deg C
– Test Cond. E: 250 deg C
– Test Cond. F: 300 deg C
– Test Cond. G: 350 deg C
– Test Cond. H: 400 deg C
MIL-STD-883 is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) military standard that establishes a comprehensive set of methods, controls, and procedures for testing microelectronic devices (microcircuits) used in military and aerospace applications. It ensures these components meet specific performance and reliability requirements for harsh environments.

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Simulating common operational states to test all components’ functionality. 1. Full Load Operations Key Considerations in Burn-in Testing
Automating data acquisition for 24/7 monitoring of critical parameters like chip current and voltages. 2. Continuous Monitoring
Setting appropriate temperatures to sufficiently accelerate aging and capture failures for analysis. 3. High-Temperature Environments
Analyzing experimental samples thoroughly to identify failure points and collaborate for insightful solutions. 4. In-depth Analysis
Applying test findings to improve yield, design, and processes, summarized in comprehensive reports. 5. Purpose-Driven Improvements
Crucial for evaluating early-stage PCB designs’ viability and robustness. PCB Reliability Testing for Prototypes Diverse Reliability Testing Methods and Standards
JEDEC standards provide common procedures for reliable semiconductor testing. Board Level Reliability Test (JEDEC)
Tests that apply extreme stress to uncover potential product failures quickly. Accelerated Life Testing and HALT
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