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SAE J2334 Laboratory Cyclic Corrosion Test: Comprehensive Analysis and Insights

The SAE J2334 laboratory cyclic corrosion test is a widely recognized protocol for evaluating the corrosion resistance of automotive materials, components, and coatings. It simulates real-world exposure to various environmental conditions that vehicles encounter during their lifespan. This test aids in assessing the effectiveness of corrosion protection measures, identifying vulnerabilities, and developing improved corrosion-resistant designs. The SAE J2334 method follows a cyclic process of exposing the test samples to a series of corrosive conditions.

These include exposure to salt spray, humidity, and condensation at specific temperatures and time intervals. The test cycles are repeated multiple times to simulate long-term corrosion effects. The severity and duration of the test can vary based on specific requirements, such as compliance with GMW 14872, an automotive industry corrosion standard. When selecting a corrosion testing laboratory, it is essential to consider factors such as accreditation, experience, technical capabilities, and adherence to international quality standards.

Expanding your understanding of corrosion testing methods, materials, and product performance is crucial for making informed decisions. Corrosion is a critical concern for automotive manufacturers as it can lead to structural damage, decreased performance, and compromised safety. To ensure the durability of vehicles, extensive corrosion testing is conducted using industry-standard methods like the SAE J2334 laboratory cyclic corrosion test. This article delves into the details of this test, its importance, and the various aspects associated with it.

SAE J2334 Laboratory Cyclic Corrosion Test
Equipment Model WEW-CCT-500L WEW-CCT-800L WEW-CCT-1500L
Inside Capacity, Liters 500 L 800 L 1500 L
Interior Dimensions (W x D x H mm) 1100*750*600 1300*1000*600 2000*1000*700
Exterior Dimensions (W x D x H mm) 1850*1150*1700 2000*1400*1750 2800*1400*1750
Web-Browser Control/Service Ethernet Port Ethernet Port Ethernet Port
Parking Style Floor Type Floor Type Floor Type
Temperature Fluctuation ±0. 5℃ ±0. 5℃ ±0. 5℃
Temperature Uniformity ±1.5℃ ±1.5℃ ±1.5℃
Internal External Material Reinforced Polyester Resin Reinforced Polyester Resin Reinforced Polyester Resin
Power Source AC230V ±10% 50HZ 2/N/PE AC230V ±10% 50HZ 2/N/PE AC230V ±10% 50HZ 2/N/PE
Max Power Consumption 3.5 kW 4.5 kW 5.7 kW
Max Current 16 A 21 A 25 A
Environmental Operation Temperature 23℃±5℃/≤85%RH 23℃±5℃/≤85%RH 23℃±5℃/≤85%RH
Net Weight 225 Kgs 290 Kgs 350 Kgs
Test cabinet(s) with the ability to obtain and maintain the following environmental conditions (Reference SAE J1563, ASTM D 1735, and ASTM D 2247): 4.1 Test Cabinets Equipment and Test Materials
a. 50 °C ± 2 °C and 100% Relative Humidity – The 100% relative humidity wet-stage condition can be achieved by use of one of the three methods shown as follows. Whichever method is employed, test samples and controls are required to be visibly moist/wet.
1. Wet-bottom method according to ASTM D 2247 – except that the temperature shall be 50 °C ± 2 °C.
2. Water fog method according to ASTM D 1735, except that the collection rate is reduced from a range of 1.5 to 3 mL/h to 0.75 to 1.5 nnL/h. The use of this method requires that the collection rates be documented.
3. Steam (vapor) generator method.
Note: The majority of the development of this specification was performed using the Wet-bottom method of humidity generation. This method was used as the basis when comparing other methods of humidity generation as well as other variables.
b. 60 °C ± 2 °C and 50% Relative Humidity ±5%. Additional equipment will be required to maintain the 50% relative humidity condition.
Air circulation must be sufficient to prevent temperature stratification and allow drying of test parts during the dry-off portion of the test cycle.
Air circulation can be obtained through the use of a fan or forced air.
The samples must be subject to an application of salt solution by use of one of the three methods shown as follows. Whichever method is employed, test samples and controls are required to be visibly moist/wet during the entire 15-minute interval of each test cycle.
0.5% NaCI|0.1% CaCl 2|0.075% NaHCO 3
4.2 Salt Solution Application
a. Immersion Method—Test specimens are to be immersed in the salt solution for a 15-minute interval of each test cycle.
b. Spray Method – A periodic or continuous direct impingement spray of the salt solution over the 15-minute interval that ensures the test specimens are kept wet for the entire 15-minute interval. Avoid a high intensity (pressure) spray that may affect test results. (Note 5) Both direct solution displacement and atomized spray are suitable for this method.
c. Air Atomized Fog Method – Applications of the salt solution to the test specimens by a 15-minute exposure to atomized fog provided the fog collection rate is 2 to 4 mL/h instead of 1 to 2 mL/h (collection rate as defined in ASTM D 1735). The use of this method requires that the collection rates be documented.
 
NOTE 1: “Either the CaCl2 or NaHCO3 material must be dissolved separately in deionized water (Reference ASTM D 1193 Type IV) and then added to the solution of other materials. If all solid materials added at the same time in a “dry” state, an insoluble precipitate may result. If a precipitate forms and a spray application is used to apply the solution, it may be necessary to remove the precipitate to are avoid clogging of nozzles (i.e., filter or siphon solution). Any filter media used must be inert to the solution being used. A 20 to 100 micron cotton or nylon mesh filter would be suitable. Do not attempt to dissolve the precipitate by adding acid.
NOTE 2: Measure and record pH of the salt solution prior to the start of test and on a weekly basis thereafter (Reference ASTM E 70-90). Do not attempt to adjust the pH with any form of buffers.
NOTE 3: The majority of the development of this specification was performed using the immersion method of salt solution application. This method was used as the basis when comparing other solution applications as well as other variables. methods of salt
NOTE 4: A freshly prepared test solution will have a conductivity of 10 to 12 ms at 25 °C ± 2 °C. Measure and record the conductivity (in units of ms) of the salt solution after mixing, prior to the last used, and as needed to ensure that the conductivity of the solution remains between 10 to 12 mS at 25 °C. amount being
NOTE 5: Careful attention should be paid to the spray method to avoid a high intensity spray that may affect test results by removal of the corrosion product, removal of the coating or driving solution corrosion products. into the

The SAE J2334 lab test procedure serves as a comprehensive and versatile method for assessing the corrosion performance of various coating systems, substrates, processes, or designs. Its applicability extends beyond simple validation, making it equally valuable as a development tool. However, if the aim is to investigate corrosion mechanisms beyond cosmetic or general corrosion through this test, establishing field correlation becomes imperative.

By closely following the SAE J2334 lab test procedure, researchers and industry professionals can gain valuable insights into the durability and effectiveness of specific coating systems, substrates, or processes. This procedure enables them to evaluate the corrosion resistance under simulated field conditions, ensuring a more accurate representation of real-world scenarios. Moreover, it aids in validating the performance claims of coatings and identifying areas for improvement during the development process.

related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Appearance Photos → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
GMW14872 Cyclic Corrosion Laboratory Test

Implementing the SAE J2334 lab test procedure not only provides a standardized approach but also allows for comparative analyses across different coating systems, substrates, or designs. This comprehensive evaluation helps in identifying the most effective solutions, predicting long-term performance, and ensuring optimal selection for specific applications. Additionally, the test’s versatility enables researchers to examine the corrosion mechanisms beyond cosmetic or general corrosion, providing a deeper understanding of various degradation processes and enabling targeted improvements in coating systems or designs.

To ensure accurate and reliable results, field correlation must be established when exploring corrosion mechanisms beyond cosmetic or general corrosion using the SAE J2334 lab test procedure. This correlation ensures that the findings obtained in the controlled laboratory environment effectively reflect the actual field conditions, providing researchers with meaningful data for further investigations and development.

The SAE J2334 lab test procedure offers a valuable and comprehensive approach to assess corrosion performance for different coating systems, substrates, processes, or designs. Its versatility as both a validation and development tool enables researchers and industry professionals to make informed decisions, ensuring the durability and effectiveness of their solutions. By establishing field correlation, additional insights can be gained, leading to improved understanding of corrosion mechanisms and targeted improvements in coating systems or designs.

The test cycle is outlined in Figure 1 (5 day/week – manual operation) and Figure 2 (7 day/week -automatic operation). It consists of three basic stages: 5.1 Test Cycle Test Procedure
1. Humid Stage-50 °C and 100% humidity, 6 h in duration,
2. Salt Application Stage-15 min duration conducted at ambient conditions
3. Dry Stage-60 °C and 50% RH, 17 h and 45 min in duration
The test cycle is repeated daily. Fully automatic cabinets have the option of running during the weekends or programming in a dry stage soak for the weekends (typically it would be desired to run on weekends and holidays to complete the test sooner). 
An exception to this rule would be if comparisons to other laboratories who do not have fully automatic capabilities is desired (for manual operations, the weekend exposure is typically maintained at dry stage conditions unless 7 day operations are available). Total test duration and weekend conditions must be documented in the test results. 
If two or more laboratories will be conducting tests on similar parts, it is recommended that a constant/common weekend condition be defined before testing begins.
Ramp time between the salt application stage (2) and dry stage (3) are part of the dry stage time. Similarly, ramp time between the dry stage (3) and humid stage (1) are part of the humid stage. Ramp documented for each test set-up. times should be
For cosmetic corrosion evaluations of coatings susceptible to damage, test samples will be scribed prior to exposure (Reference ASTM D 1654). Scribe length should be a minimum of 50 mm. 
Scribe creepback measurements are to be taken at predetermined intervals depending on the level of corrosion resistance desired. Scribe orientation, on the specimen, must be specified and documented (for typical fíat panel specimens, it is recommended that panels be oriented 15 degrees from the vertical such that no one panel shadows another and that the scribe line be made in a diagonal across the panel face).
Typically, SAE J2334 is conducted for a minimum of 60 cycles when evaluating coated products. Longer durations may be required to observe performance differences in the heavier weight metallic precoats. Different test durations may be appropriate based on other materials, corrosion mechanisms of interest, or past history. 5.2 Test Duration
The testing process will be monitored with bare steel corrosion coupons. 5.3 Coupon Monitoring
a. Corrosion coupons generally consist of 25.4 mm by 50.8 mm pieces of bare sheet metal which serve to monitor the corrosivity of the test environment during the test. The sheet metal coupon will always include low-carbon cold rolled steel sheet (SAE 1006 to SAE 1010), and may also include other bare metals, such as zinc.
b. Each coupon shall be permanently identified by stamping a number onto the surface.
c. Corrosion coupons shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove all forming and storage oils/lubes with a commercially available degreaser followed by a methanol rinse. Then the mass in milligrams shall be recorded and retained for future reference.
d. The coupons shall be secured to an aluminum or nonmetallic coupon rack. The coupons shall be electrically isolated from the rack by using fasteners and washers made from a non-black plastic material, preferably nylon.
e. Allow a minimum 5 mm spacing between the coupons and the rack surface. All coupons shall be secured at a maximum 15 degrees from vertical and must not contact each other.
f. The coupon rack shall be placed in the general vicinity of the samples being tested, such that the coupons receive the same environmental exposure.
g. Coupons shall be removed and analyzed after a predetermined number of cycles throughout the test to monitor corrosion. To analyze coupons, remove 1 coupon from each end of the rack and prepare for weighing and mass loss determination. Insure enough coupons are exposed in the test so monitoring frequency can be accomplished. Additional unexposed coupons can be added throughout the test to obtain interval data in addition to cumulative data.
h. Before weighing, clean the coupons using a mild “sand blast” (preferably glass beads) to remove all corrosion by-products from the coupon surface. An alternative/equivalent cleaning method, using a chemical process, is described in ASTM G 1. Once clean, wipe the coupons with methanol and weigh to determine the coupon mass loss using Equation 1:
Corrosion losses may also be expressed in term of average corrosion rates from the mass loss, coupon area, test duration, and metal density by use of the calculation described in ASTM G 1.
The laboratory cyclic corrosion test provides a holistic assessment of corrosion resistance by simulating the combined impact of different environmental factors on materials and coatings. 1. Comprehensive Evaluation: Key Features and Benefits:
By subjecting components to cyclic testing, manufacturers can ensure the long-term durability and reliability of their automotive products, thereby reducing maintenance costs and improving customer satisfaction. 2. Durability Assurance:
The SAE J2334 test method aligns with several automotive industry standards, including GMW14872, ensuring uniformity and comparability of test results across different manufacturers and suppliers. 3. Obey Industry Standards:

The SAE J2334 laboratory cyclic corrosion test serves as a vital tool in the automotive industry’s pursuit of durable and corrosion-resistant materials and coatings. Through its rigorous procedure, this test enables manufacturers to identify weak points and develop effective corrosion protection strategies. By partnering with corrosion testing laboratories and leveraging their expertise, automotive manufacturers can ensure the reliability and longevity of their products, contributing to the safety and satisfaction of end-users.

related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
related page logoCyclic Corrosion Test Chamber → Machine Detail Pictures → WEW-CCT-500D → Wewon Environmental Chambers Co., Ltd.
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