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UL 1642 Tests For Technician-Replaceable and User-Replaceable Batteries

UL 1642 test standards serve as a pivotal benchmark for testing the compatibility and safety of technician-replaceable and user-replaceable batteries in various electronic devices. Compliance with these rigorous assessments ensures that batteries can be seamlessly interchanged by either technicians or end-users without compromising performance or risking safety hazards. By adhering to UL 1642 guidelines, manufacturers can instill confidence in consumers regarding the reliability and durability of their products. The thorough evaluation process encompasses a range of factors, including battery capacity, voltage stability, thermal management, and overall longevity.

As technology continues to advance, the significance of UL 1642 certification in the design and production of batteries cannot be overstated. Embracing these standards not only fosters innovation and quality assurance but also cultivates a safer and more user-friendly experience for individuals interacting with battery-operated devices. Ultimately, The integration of UL 1642 specifications into product development not only meets regulatory requirements but also reflects a commitment to excellence and consumer satisfaction in today’s dynamic market landscape.

UL 1642 Tests For Technician-Replaceable and User-Replaceable Batteries
10.1 Each test sample battery, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a maximum resistance load of 0.1 ohm. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a completely discharged state of less than 0.1 volts and the battery case temperature has returned to 10C (18°) of ambient temperature. 10 Short-Circuit Test ELECTRICAL TESTS Tests For Technician-Replaceable and User-Replaceable Batteries
10.2 Tests are to be conducted at 20 ±5°C and at 55±5C. The batteries are to reach equilibrium at 20 ±5C or 55 ±5 C, as applicable, before the terminals are connected.
10.3 A battery is to be tested individually unless the manufacturer indicates that it is intended for use in series or parallel. For series or parallel use, additional tests on five sets of batteries are to be conducted using the maximum number of batteries to be covered for each configuration.
10.4 When an overcurrent or thermal protective device that has been investigated for the purpose actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open. A protective device that has not been investigated for the purpose shall be short-circuited.
10.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. The temperature of the exterior cell or battery casing shall not exceed 150C.
11.1 Primary cells or batteries shall comply with 11.2 – 11.7 11 Abnormal Charging Test
11.2 Cells or batteries conditioned in accordance with Tables 6.1 or 6.3, as applicable, are to be used for this test, The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5C.
11.3 Each test sample battery is to be subjected to a charging current of three times the current l specified by the manufacturer by connecting it in opposition to a dc-power supply. The specified charging current is to be obtained by connecting a resistor of the specified size and rating in series with the battery. The test charging time is to be calculated using the formula:
11.4 When a non-resettable overcurrent or thermal protective device that has been investigated for the purpose operates during the test, the test is to be repeated at a charge current below the level that the protective device operates. When a resettable protective device operates during the test, the protector is allowed to reset to a total of 10 cycles; or until the appropriate charging time has been completed, but not ess than 7 hours. A protective device that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short-circuited.See 2.3.2
11.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
11.6 Secondary cells or batteries shall comply with 11.7 – 11.10.
11.7 Cells or batteries conditioned in accordance with Tables 6.2 or 6.4, as applicable, are to be used for this test. The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temperature of 20 ±5C.
11.8 Each test sample battery is to be discharged at a constant current of 0.2 C/1 hour, to a manufacturer specified discharge endpoint voltage. The cell or battery is then to be charged with a constant maximum specified output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum charging current, lc, specified by the manufacturer. Charging duration is to be 7 hours or the time required to reach the manufacturer’s specified end-of-charge condition,whichever is greater.
11.9 The cel/battery is to be tested without the assistance of overcurrent or thermal protective devices unless such protective devices have been investigated for the purpose. When a non-resettable overcurrent or thermal protective device operates during the test, the test shall be repeated at an overcharging current below the level that the protection device operates. When a resettable protective device operates during the test, the protector is to be allowed to reset to a total of 10 cycles; or until the appropriate charging time has been completed, but not less than 7 hours. A protective device that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short-circuited. See 2.3.2 Revised 11.9 effective Auqust 2.2007
11.10 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
12.1 This test is intended for cells that are to be used in series-connected, multicell applications, such as battery packs. 12 Forced-Discharge Test
12.2 A completely discharged cell is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged cells of the same kind, The number of fuly charaed cells to be connected in series with the discharged cell is to equal the maximum number less one of the cells to be covered for series use. Five cells are to be completely discharged, at room temperature.
12.3 Once the completely discharaed cell is connected in series with the specified number of fully charged cells the resultant battery pack is to be short circuited.
12.4 The positive and negative terminals of the sample are to be connected with a copper wire with a maximum resistance load of 0.1 ohm. The sample is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a completely discharged state of less than 0.2 volts and the battery case temperature has returned to 10C (18F) of ambient temperature.
12.5 When an overcurrent or thermal protective device that has been investigated for the purpose operates during the test,the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protectiv device to open. A protective device that has not been investiaated for the purpose shall be short-circuited.
12.6 The samples shall not explode or catch fire
13.1 A battery is to be crushed between two flat surfaces. The force for the crushing is to be applied by a hydraulic ram with a 1.25 inch (32 mm) diameter piston, The crushing is to be continued until a pressure reading of 2500 psig (17.2 MPa) is reached on the hydraulic ram, applied force of 3000 pounds (13 kN) Once the maximum pressure has been obtained it is to be released. 13 Crush Test MECHANICAL TESTS
13.2 A cylindrical or prismatic battery is to be crushed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the crushing force. Each sample battery is to be subjected to a crushing force in only one direction. Separate samples are to be used for each test.
13.3 A coin or button battery is to be crushed with the flat surface of the battery parallel with the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus.
13.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
14.1 A test sample battery is to be placed on a flat surface. A 5/8 inch (15.8 mm) diameter bar is to be placed across the center of the sample. A 20 pound (9.1 kg) weight is to be dropped from a height of 24 ±1inch onto the sample.(See Figure 14.1). 14 Impact Test
14.2 A cylindrical or prismatic battery is to be impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 5/8 inch (15.8 mm) diameter curved surface lying across the center of the test sample. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90 degrees around its longitudina axis so that both the wide and narrow sides are subjected to the impact, Each sample battery is to be subjected to only a single impact. Separate samples are to be used for each test.
14.3 A coin or button battery is to be impacted with the flat surface of the test sample parallel to the flat surface and the 5/8 inch (15.8 mm) diameter curved surface lying across its center.
14.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
15.1 The cell is to be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which supports all mounting surfaces of the cell. Each cell shall be subjected to a total of three shocks of equal magnitude. 15 Shock Test
The shocks are to be applied in each of three mutually perpendicular directions unless it has only two axes of symmetry in which case only two directions shall be tested. Each shock is to be applied in a direction normal to the face of the cell. For each shock the cell is to be accelerated in such a manner that during the initial 3 milliseconds the minimum average acceleration is 75 a (where a is the local acceleration due to gravity). The peak acceleration shall be between 125 and 175 g. Cells shall be tested at a temperature of 20 ±5C.
15.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. in addition, the sample shall not vent or leak as described in 5.1.1.
16.1 A battery is to be subjected to simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 0.8 mm (0.03 inch) ([1.6 mm (0.06 inch) total maximum excursion]. 16 Vibration Test
16.2 The frequency is to be varied at the rate of 1 hertz per minute between 10 and 55 hertz, and return in not less than 90 nor more than 100 minutes. The battery is to be tested in three mutually perpendicular directions. For a battery that has only two axes of symmetry, the battery is to be tested perpendicular to each axis.
16.3 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. In addition the sample shall not vent or leak as described in 5.1.1.
17.1 A battery is to be heated in a gravity convection or circulating air oven with an initial temperature of 20 ±5C, The temperature of the oven is to be raised at a rate of 5±2C per minute to a temperature of 130 ±2C and remain for 10 minutes. The sample shall return to room temperature (20±5C) and then be examined. 17 Heating Test ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS
18.1 The batteries are to be placed in a test chamber and subjected to the following cycles: 18 Temperature Cycling Test
a) Raising the chamber-temperature to 70 ±3C within 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 4 hours.
b) Reducing the chamber temperature to 20 ±3°Cwithin 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 2 hours.
c)Reducing the chamber temperature to minus 40 ±3°C minuswithin 30 minutes and maintaining this temperature for 4 hours.
d) Raising the chamber temperature to 20 ±3  within 30 minutes.
e) Repeating the sequence for a further 9 cycles
f)After the 10th cycle, storing the batteries for a minimum of 24 hours, at a temperature of 20 ±5C prior to examination.
18.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. ln addition, the samples shall not vent or leak as described in 5.1.1.
19.1 Sample batteries are to be stored for 6 hours at an absolute pressure of 11.6 kPa (1.68 psi) and a temperature of 20±3C. 19 Low Pressure (Altitude Simulation) Test
19.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire as a result of the Altitude Simulation Test. In addition, The samples shall not vent or leak as described in 5.1.1.
20.1 When subiected to the test described in 20.2 – 20.5 no part of an exploding cell or battery shall penetrate the wire screen such that some or all of the cell or battery protrudes through the screen. 20 Projectile Test Tests For User-Eplaceable Lithium Batteries
20.2 Each test sample cell or battery is to be placed on a screen that covers a 102 mm (4 inch) diameter hole in the center of a platform table. The screen is to be constructed of steel wire mesh having 20 openings per inch (25.4 mm) and a wire diameter of 0.017 inch (0.43 mm).
20.3 The screen is to be mounted 38 mm (1-1/2 inch) above a burner. The fuel and air flow rates are to be set to provide a bright blue flame that causes the supporting screen to glow a bright red.
20.4 An eight-sided covered wire cage, 610 mm (2 feet) across and 305 mm (1 foot) high, made from metal screening is to be placed over the test sample. See Figure 20.1. The metal screening is to be constructed from 0.25 mm (0.010 inch) diameter aluminum wire with 16 – 18 wires per inch (25.4 mm) in each direction.
20.5 The sample is to be heated and shall remain on the screen until it explodes or the cell or battery has ignited and burned out. lt is not required to secure the sample in place unless it is at risk of falling off the screen before the test is completed. When required, the sample shall be secured to the screen with a single wire tied around the sample.

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