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UL 2054 Testing for Household and Commercial Batteries

In consumer electronics, Batteries power our devices and ignite innovation. But with great power comes great responsibility, and battery safety takes center stage. Enter the UL 2054 standard, a rigorous set of tests designed to safeguard users from potential hazards. Products equipped with UL 2054-certified batteries offer consumers peace of mind, knowing they’ve undergone rigorous safety checks. Manufacturers benefit from enhanced brand reputation and product liability protection. Ultimately, UL 2054 fosters a safer and more reliable ecosystem for everyone.

11.1 Cells shall comply with.11.1 – 11.6 11 Short -Circuit Test ELEC TRICAL TESTS
11.2 Each fully charged test sample cell, in turn, is to be short-circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a resistance load of 80 ± 20 mΩ. The temp of the battery case is to be recorded during the test. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a discharged state of less than 0.2 V and/or the case temp has returned to ±10℃ of ambient temp.
11.3 Tests are to be conducted at 20 ± 5℃, and at 55 ±2 ℃. The thecells are to reach equilibrium at 20 ±5 ℃ or 55 ±2 ℃ as applicable before the terminals are connected.
11.4 A cell is to be tested individually unless the cell factory indicates that it is intended for use in series or parallel. For series or parallel use, additional tests on five sets of batteries are to be conducted using the maximum number of cells to be covered for each configuration as specified by the factory
11.5 A cell is to be tested without the assistance of protective devices unless such protective devices are integral to the cell construction. When a protective device actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the cell connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open
11.6 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. The temp of the exterior cell or battery casing shall not exceed 150 ℃ for lithium chemistries.
11.7 Battery packs shall comply with 11.8 – 11.12.
Exception: Battery packs consisting of a single cell, in which the cell has already been subjected to the testsin 11.1 – 11.6 neednot be subiected to the testsin 11.8 – 11.12.
11.8 Each fully charged test sample battery pack, in turn, is to be short -circuited by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery with a circuit load having a resistance load of 80 ± 20mΩ. The temp of the battery case is to be recorded during the test. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it is completely discharged and/or the cell case temp has returned to ±10 ℃ of ambient temp
11.9 Tests are to be conducted at 20 ±5℃ and at 55 ±5℃. The batteries are to reach equilibrium at 20 ±5℃ or 55 ±5℃, as applicable, before the terminals are connected.
11.10 Battery pack constructions are to be subjected to a single fault across any protective device in the load circuit of the battery under test. When protective devices actuate during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery pack connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to open. See 5.21
Exception: A positive temp coefficient device which complies with the tests specified in UL 1434, UL 60730-1, or otherprotective devices determined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See 5.21.Other standards that may apply are UL 248-14 and UL 60691
11.11 One of the above five test sample battery packs, tested at 20 ±5℃ shall be evaluated with the following additional conditions in place. The terminals are to be subjected to a short circuit condition with a resistance that is capable of withstanding the short circuit current and creating a short­circuit condition with a total external resistance of 80 ± 20 mΩ. The test is to be conducted on a tissue paper covered soft wood surface and the sample battery pack and bare conductor is to be covered with a single layer of cheesecloth.
11.12 For all samples tested, the samples shall not explode or catch fire and the tests shall not result 1n chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing or bursting of the cellcasing. The temp of the internal cell casings shall not exceed 150℃ for lithium chemistries. For battery pack samples tested in accordance with 11.11,the cheesecloth and tissue paper shall not catch fire.
12.1 Primary batteries (for example: cells, single cell batteries, or battery packs) shall comply with 12.2 -12.5. 12 Abnormal Charging Test
12.2 Batteries discharged to the factory’s rated capacity are to be used for this test. The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20 ±5℃
12.3 Each fully discharged test sample battery is to be subjected to a constant charging current of three times the current, le, specified by the factory by connecting it in opposition to a dc -power supply. The test time is to be calculated using the formula
The minimum charging time is to be 7 h.
Exception: At the factory’s discretion, test currents greater than the specified three times rated le canbe applied to expedite the test timeframe, with the minimum charging times as 7h
12.4 When a protective device that has been investigated for the purpose, actuates during the test, the test shall be repeated with the battery supply connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective device to open. A protective device that has not been investigated for the purpose shall be short -circuited.
12.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. For battery pack samples, tests shall not result 1n chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing or bursting of the battery casing
12.6 Secondary cells shall comply with 12.7 -12.9.
12.7 The cells are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20±5 °C. Each battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2 C/1h, to a factory specified discharge endpoint voltage
12.8 The cells are to be charged with a constant maximum specified charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum current le, specified by the factory. Charging duration is the time required to reach the factory’s specified end-of- charge condition plus seven additional hours.
12.9 A cell is to be tested without the assistance of protective devices, unless such protective devices are either integral to the cell constructions or have been investigated for the purpose. A re-settable protective device that actuates during the test shall be allowed to reset and the test shall be resumed, cycling as often as necessary to complete the test When a protective device operates during the test (whether re-settable or not) the test is repeated with the same charging time, but with the cellconnected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to operate. A protective device that is not integral to the cell and that has not been investigated for the purpose is to be short -circuited
12.10 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
12.11 Secondary battery packs shall comply with 12.12 -12.14.
12.12 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20 ±5 °C. A thermocouple is to be attached to the cells of each test sample battery. Each battery shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 h, to a factory specified discharge endpoint voltage
12.13 Each of the test sample batteries are to be subjected to the following over charge cond巾ons, in sequential order
a) The battery is to be initially charged using a constant current charging mode with a current limte of three times the maximum current le, specified by the factory until the maximum specified charger output voltage is reached. At that point, the battery is to be charged with a constant maximum specified charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum currentle,
Charging duration is the time required to reach the factory’s specified end-of- charge condition plus seven additional hours. The temp on the cell casing shall be monitored. A re­ settable protective device such as a PTC that actuates during the test shall be allowed to reset and the test shall be resumed, cycling as often as necessary, but no less than 10 times, to complete the test. Automatic reset devices are allowed to cycle during the test. When an overcurrent protective device operates during the test, the test is repeated with the same charging time, but with the battery connected to the maximum load that does not cause the protective devices to operate.
b) The charge condition in accordance with (a) shall be conducted with each single component fault that is likely to occur in the charging circuit and which would result in over charging of the battery.
Exception No. 1: A protective device determined to be reliable may remain in the circuit without being faulted. See Section 3 and 5.21
Exception No. 2: For batteries without protective devices, the over charge condition in (b) do not apply
12.14 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. For battery pack samples, tests shall not result in chemical leaks caused by cracking, rupturing or bursting of the cell casing.
13.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20±5 °C. 13 Abusive Over charge Test
13.2 Sample batteries are to be subjected to a constant charging current at 10 times the C5 amp rate, using a supply voltage sufficient to maintain the 10 times C5 amp rate throughout the duration of the test. During the test, the temp is to be measured on the internal cell casing of each sample. The test is to continue until the cell or battery explodes, vents, or a single operation protective device operates, and the temp of the internal cell casing reaches steady state conditions or returns to ambient. If a PTC or other re-settable protection device operates during the test, it is to be reset a minimum of 10 times during the test. An automatic reset device is allowed to cycle during the test.
13.3 During the tests, batteries supplied with protective devices shall be subjected to a single component fault using any single fault condition which is likely to occur in the charging circuit and which would result in overcharging of the battery.
Exception: Protective devices determined to be reliable, may remainin the circuit without being faulted.
13.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
13.5 At least one of the five samples shall be subjected to the test outlined in 13.2 and 13.3 with a constant current charge 5 times the C5 rate (for example: at the Crate) with a supply voltage sufficient to maintain that rate throughout the duration of the test.
14.1 This test is intended for cells that are to be used in multicell applications, such as battery packs. The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20 ±5 °C 14 Forced-Discharge Test
14.2 For multi -cell series configurations without parallel strings a fully discharged cell is to be force discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged cells of the same kind. The number of fully charged cells to be connected in series with the discharged cell is to equal the total number of cells in the pack less one.
14.3 For multi -cell series configurations with parallel strings, a fully discharged parallel string is to be force-discharged by connecting it in series with fully charged cells of the same kind. The number of fully charged cells to be connected in series with the discharged parallel string is to equal the total number of cells in the pack less the number of cells in the discharged parallel string.
14.4 Each of the five battery packs shall be prepared as described in 14.2 or 14.3, as applicable
14.5 Once the completely discharged cells (or string of cells) are connected in series with the specified number of fully charged cells, the resultant battery pack is to be short circuited.
14.6 The positive and negative terminals of the sample are to be connected with a copper wire with a resistance load of 80 ± 20 mΩ. The battery is to discharge until a fire or explosion is obtained, or until it has reached a completely discharged state and the cell case temp has returned to ±10℃ of ambient temp.
14.7 During the tests, batteries supplied with protective devices shall be subjected to a single component fault using any single fault condition which is likely to occur in the discharge circuit and which would result in excessive discharge of the battery.
Exception: A positive temp coefficient device which complies with the applicable tests specified in UL 1434 and UL 60730-1, or other protective devices detennined to be reliable, may remain in the circuit without being faulted. Other standards that may apply are UL 248 -14 and UL 60691
14.8 The samples shallnot explode or catch fire.
15.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20±5 °C. 15 Limited Power Source Test
15.2 A battery intended to be a limited power source shall comply with one of the following
a) The output is inherently limited in compliance with  Table 15.1;
b) A linear or nonlinear impedance limits the output in compliance with Table 15.1. If a positive temp coefficient device is used, it shall
1) Comply with UL 1434;
2) Pass the tests specified in the Manufacturing Deviation and Drift Section, the Endurance Section, and the Manufacturing Deviation and Drift Section and the Endurance Section in the Annex for Requirements for Controls Using Thermistors of UL 60730-1; or
3) Meet the requirements in UL 60730-1 for a device for Type 2.AL Action;
c) A regulating network or an integrated circuit (IC) current limiter, limits the output in compliance with Table 15.1. both under normal operating conditions and after any simulated single fault in the regulating network or IC current limiter (open circuit or short circuit); or
d) An overcurrent protective device is used and the output is limited in compliance with Table 15.2.
Table 15.1 Limits for Power Sources Without an Over current Protective Device
Table 15.2 Limits for Battery Sources (With Over current Protective Divice)
15.3 Where an overcurrent protective device is used, it shall be a fuse or a non-adjustable, nonautoreset, electromechanical device.
15.4 Batteries shall be fully charged when conducting the mea surements for U(oc) I(sc) and S according to TabIe 15.1 and Table 15.2.
15.5 The non-capacitive load referenced in TabIe 15.1 and Table 15.2 shall be adjusted to develop maximum measured values of current (Isc) and power (S) that can be obtained over the time limits noted in TabIe 15.1 and Table 15.2. Simulated faults in a regulating network required according to15.2(c) above are applied under these load conditions.
15.6 Batteries that meet the limited power source requirements may be marked “Limited Power Source” “LPS” to indicate that they are considered to be a limited power source. Batteries that do not meet these requirements, regardless of terminal design, shall not be marked to indicate that they are a limited power source and are restricted to applications where a limited power source is not required.
16.1 A battery pack with enclosure shall be subjected to a normal temp test under both input (charging) and output (discharging) conditions. As a result of this testing, temp on temp sensitive components shall not exceed the limits outlined in Table 16.1 16 Battery Pack Component Temp Test
Table 16.1 Normal Temp Limits- Component
16.2 For the output loading temp test, a fully charged battery pack shall be subjected to a constant resistive loading across the output terminals of the pack with the output load current set to just below the operating limit of the discharging protection circuit. Temps are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its specified endpoint voltage, whichever comes first.
16.3 The input loading tempe「ature test shall be conducted on a fully discharged battery pack, discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 h to a factory specified discharge endpoint voltage.
16.4 For the input loading temp test, a fully discharged sample shall be subjected to a CCCV charging method with the maximum charging voltage not to exceed the factory’s recommended maximum charging voltage limits. During the test, the charging current shall not exceed three times the maximum charge current or the operating limit of the charging protection circuit, whichever is less, during the test. Temps are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its fully charged state, whichever comes first.
16.5 Temps are considered to be stabilized when three successive readings taken at intervals of 10 % of the previously elapsed duration of the test, but not less than 15 min, indicate no further increase.
16.6 Protective devices within the pack shall not operate during the test.
16.7 Temps are monitored on surfaces of components using thermocouples. Thermocouples are to consist of 30 AWG wires. Larger size wires may be used, but they shall not exceed 24 AWG and shall not be large enough to result in a heat sink condition on the part under test.
16.8 During the normal temp test, temp measurement Tshall not exceed
During the test Tamb should not exceed Tma unless agreed by all parties involved.
17.1 A battery pack with enclosure shall be subjected to a nonnal temp test under both input (charging) and output (discharging) conditions. As a result of this testing, temps on external accessible surfaces of the pack shall not exceed the limits outlined in Table 17.1 17 Battery Pack Surface Temp Test
17.2 For the output loading temp test, a fully charged battery pack shall be subjected to a constant resistive loading across the output terminals of the pack with the output load current set to just below the operating limit of the discharging protection circuit. Tempes are monitored until thermal stabilization or until the pack is at its specified endpoint voltage, whichever comes first.
17.3 The input loading temp test shall be conducted on a fully discharged battery pack, discharged at a constant current of 0.2C/1 h to a factory specified discharge endpoint voltage.
17.4 For the input loading temp test, a fully discharged sample shall be subjected to a CCCV charging method with the maximum charging voltage not to exceed the factory’s recommended maximum charging voltage limits. During the test, the charging current shall not exceed three times the maximum charge current or the operating limit of the charging protection circuit, whichever is less, during the test. Temps are monitored until the『mal stabilization or until the pack is at its fully charged state, whichever comes first
17.5 Temps are considered to be stabilized when three successive readings taken at intervals of 10 % of the previously elapsed duration of the test, but not less than 15 min, indicate no further increase.
17.6 Protective devices within the pack shall not operate during the test.
17.7 Temps are monitored on the access心e surfaces of the pack enclosure using thermocouples. Thermocouples are to consists of 30 AWG wires. Larger size wires may be used, but they shall not exceed 24 AWG
17.8 During the normal temp test, temp measurement T shall not exceed
During the test Tamb should not exceed Tma unless agreed by all parties involved.
Table 17.1 Normal Temp Limits- Surface
18.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp erature of 20 ± 5℃ 18 Crush Test MECH ANICAL TESTS
18.2 A battery is to be crushed between two flat surfaces. The force for the crushing is to be applied by a hydraulic ram or similar force mechanism. The flat surfaces are to be brought in contact with the cells and the crushing is to be continued until an applied force of 13 ± 1.0 kN is reached. Once the maximum force has been obtained, it is to be released.
18.3 A cylindrical or prismatic battery is to be crushed with its longi tudinal axis parallel to the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90° around its longi tudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the crushing force. Each sample battery is to be subjected to a crushing force in only one direction. Separate samples are to be used for each test.
18.4 A coin or button battery is to be crushed with the flat surface of the battery parallel with the flat surfaces of the crushing apparatus.
18.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
19.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp of 20 ± 5°C. 19 Impact Test
19.2 A test sample battery is to be placed on a flat surface. A 15.8 ±0.1 mm diameter bar 1s to be placed across the center of the sample. A 9.10 ± 0.46 kg weight is to be dropped from a height of 610 ± 25 mm onto the sample. See Figure 19.1
Figure 19.1 Impact Test
19.3 A cylindrical or prismatic battery is to be impacted with its long itudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and per pendicular to the long itudinal axis of a 15.8 mm diameter curved surface lying across the center of the test sample. A prismatic battery is also to be rotated 90° around its long itudinal axis so that both the wide and narrow sides will be subjected to the impact. Each sample battery is to be subjected to only a single impact. Separate samples are to be used for each test.
19.4 A coin or button battery is to be impacted with the flat surface of the test sample parallel to the flat surface and the 15.8 mm diameter curved surface lying across its center.
19.5 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
20.1 The cell is to be secured to the testing machine by means of a rigid mount which supports all mounting surfaces of the cell. Each cell shall be subjected to a total of three shocks of equal magnitude The shocks are to be applied in each of three mutually per pendicular directions unless it has only two axes of symmetry in which case only two directions shall be tested. Each shock is to be applied in a direction normal to the face of the cell. For each shock the cellis to be acc elerated in such a manner that during the initial 3ms the minimum average acc eleration is 75g (where g is the local acc eleration due to gravity) The peak acc eleration shall be between 125 and 175g. Cells shall be tested at a temp of 20 ±5 °C 20 Shock Test
20.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
20.3 The sample shall be examined 6 h after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 7.2.
21.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp erature of 20 ± 5℃ 21 Vibration Test
21.2 A battery is to be subjected to simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 0.8 mm 1.6 mm total maximum excursion
21.3 The frequency is to be varied at the rate of 1 Hz/min between 10 and 55 Hz and return in not less than 90 nor more than 100 min. The battery is to be tested in three mutually per pendicular directions. For a battery that has only two axes of symmetry, the battery is to be tested per pendicular to each axis.
21.4 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
21.5 The sample shall be examined 6 h after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 7.2.
UL 2054 Testing for Household and Commercial Batteries
22.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp erature of 20 ±5 °C 22 General BATTERY ENCLOSURE TESTS
22.2 Batteries with outer plastic enclosures shall be sub丿ected to the tests described in Sections 23, 24 and 25. Batteries with outer enclosures made from materials other than plastic, shall be subjected to the tests described in Sections 23 and 25.
23.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp erature of 20 ±5 °C. 23 Steady Force Test
23.2 External enclosures of the battery pack are to be subjected to a steady force of 250 ±10 N for a period of 5 s, applied in turn to the top, bottom and sides of the battery pack enclosure by means of a suitable test tool providing contact over a circular plane surface 30 mm in diameter.
23.3 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. The outer battery enclosure shall not crack to the extent that the cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of application of the 250N steady force shallmeet the criteria of 6.1.5
23.4 The sample shall be examined 6 h after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 7.2
24.1 Each of three samples are to be placed in a full-draft circulating-air oven maintained at a uniform temp erature of 70℃ (158 °F). The samples are to remain in the oven for 7 h. 24 Mold Stress Relief Test
Exception: If the maximum temp erature, T, recorded on the battery pack thermoplastic enclosure parts, obtained during the normal temp erature test of Section 17 exceeds 60℃, then the oven temp erature is to be maintained at a temp erature equalto T + 10℃.
24.2 To prevent hazards from overheating energized cells, samples shall either be fully discharged prior to conditioning or provided with “dummy” cells, which are representative of the actual cells.
24.3 After careful removal from the oven and after retuming to room temp erature following the conditioning described in 24.3, the samples shall show no evide_nce of m chanical damage that would result in damage to cells or protective circuitry. In addition, the battery enclosures shall not crack, warp, or melt to the extent that the cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the conditioning shall meet thecriteria of 6.1.5.
25.1 The batteries are to be tested in an ambient temp erature of 20 ±5℃. 25 DropImpact Test
Exception: Battery packs employing plastic enclosures that are intended for use in 0 ℃ (32 °F) temp eratures shall be conditioned for 3 h at 0 ℃ or tem perature specired if lower than 0°C prior to conducting the drop test, which shallbe conducted immediately after removing the samples from the cold conditioning.
25.2 Each of three samples is to be dropped from a height of 1 m (3.28 ft) so it strikes a concrete surface in the position that is most likely to produce the adverse results in 25.3. Each sample is to be dropped three times.
25.3 The samples shall not explode or catch fire.
25.4 The sample shall be examined 6 h after testing and shall not vent or leak as described in 7.2,and the integrity of the protective devices shall be maintained
25.5 The outer battery enclosure shall not crack to the extent that cells or any protective devices are exposed. Openings in the enclosure created as a result of the drop impact(s) shall meet the criteria of 6.1.5
26.1 When subjected to the test described in 26.2 – 26.5. no part of an exploding cell or battery shall create a hole in the wire screen cage or penetrate the wire screen cage such that some or all of the cell or battery protrudes through the screen cage. 26 Projectile Test FIRE EXPOSURE TESTS
26.2 Each test sample cell or battery is to be placed on a screen that covers a 102 mm diameter hole in the center of a platform table. The screen is to be constructed of steel wire mesh having 20 openings per inch (25.4 mm) and a wire diameter of 0.43 mm.
26.3 The screen is to be mounted 38 mm above a burner. The fuel and air flow rates are to be set to provide a bright blue flame that causes the supporting screen to glow a bright red.
26.4 An eight-sided covered wire cage, 610 mm across and 305 mm high, made from metal screening is to be placed over the test sample. See Figure 26.1. The metal screening is to be constructed from 0.25 mm diameter aluminum wire with 16- 18wires per inch 25.4 mm in each direction.
26.5 The sample is to be heated and shall remain on the screen until it explodes or the cell or battery has ignited and burned out. It is not required to secure the sample in place unless it is at risk of falling off the screen before the test is completed. When required, the sample shall be secured to the screen with a single wire tied around the sample.
Figure 26.1 Test Apparatus for Projectile Test
27.1 The sample shall not explode or catch fire when subjected to the test described in 27.2 – 27.4 27 Heating Test ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS
27.2 A battery is to be heated in a gravity convection or circulating air oven with an initial temp erature of 20 ±5 °C
27.3 The temp erature of the oven is to be raised at a rate of 5 ±2℃ per minute to a temp erature of 130 ±2℃ and remain at that temp erature for 10 min.
27.4 The sample shallreturn to room temp erature 20 ±5 °C and then be examined.
28.1 The batteries are to be placed in a test chamber and subjected to the following cycles:
a) Raising the chamber-temp erature to 70 ±3 °C within 30 min and maintaining this tempe rature for 4 h.
b) Reducing the chamber temp erature to 20 ±3 °C within 30 min and maintaining this temp erature for 2 h
28 Temp Cycling Test
c) Reducing the chamber temperature to minus 40 ±3 °C within 30 min and maintaining this temperature for 4h
d) Raising the chamber temperature to 20 ±3 °C within 30 min.
e) Repeating the sequence for a further 9 cycles.
f) After the 10th cycle, storing the batteries for a minimum of 24 h at 20 ±5 °C prior to examination.
28.2 The samples shall not explode or catch fire. In addition, the samples shall not vent or leak as described in 7.2.
29.1 The purpose of this test is to evaluate the permanence of an adhesive label that has not been subjected to a previous evaluation program. See 30.1 29 Label Permanence Test
29.2 An adhesive label secured to a surface representative of the end use application andis subjected to the following conditioning:
a) The label sample is rubbed by hand for 15 s with a piece of cloth soaked with water; and
b) The sample is again rubbed for 15 s with a piece of cloth soaked with petroleum spirit
29.3 The petroleum spirit to be used for the test is an aliphatic solvent hexane having:
a) A maximum aromatics content of 0.1 % by volume;
b) A kauributenol value of 29
c) An initial boilir_g poini of approxima ely 65℃
d) A dry point of approximately 69℃; and
e) A mass per unit volume of approximately 0.7 kg/L
Exception: As an alternative, it is permitted to use a reagent grade hexane with a minimum of 85 % as nhexane.
29.4 After the conditioning outlined in 29.2, the sample is to be examined for signs of damage including curing and to determine if the marking is still legible. The sample is also examined to determine if it can be removed by easily by hand from the surface the adhered surface.
29.5 As a result of the conditioning, the sample label shall remain legible, show no evidence of damage including curling and shall not be able to be able to be easily removed by hand from theadhered surface.
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